iaMarg of % Ulitscum
AT HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.
JFotmTFeto bg jjrfbate sutmcrfplfon, fn 1861,
Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ.
No. 11, 6jf
(/ - - ?. /to/
JUN 8 1891
This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ra.y Society for
the Year 1890.
PRINTED BY ADLARD AND SON, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE.
H. T. STAINTON, F.B.S.
(THE FIRST PORTION OF THE NOCTTLE.)
PRINTED FOB THE RAY SOCIETY,
CAMBRIDGE. MA USA
The present volume is devoted to the larvae of the
Noctuae, containing, however, only the first portion of
that group of night-flying Moths.
It is thought that in two more volumes it will be
possible to complete the Noctuae, so far as their larvae
have been figured by Mr. Buckler.
As in the previous volumes, the letters W. B. or
J. H. after each description indicate whether written
by William Buckler or by John Hellins, and the figures
immediately following give the date when the descrip-
tion was writteu for publication, the reference that
follows being to the volume and page of the ' Ento-
mologists' Monthly Magazine,' or to Mr. Buckler's
We are again indebted to Mr. G. 0. Bignell for a
list of the parasites bred from the larvae of which the
present volume treats.
H. T. STAINTON.
MOUNTSFIELD, LEWISHAM ;
January \1tli, 1891.
CONTENTS OF VOL. IV.
— elymi .
— typhse .
Neuria saponarise . . . . . .66
Charseas graminis .
Luperina testacea .
Mamestra abject a .
— furva .
Apamea connexa .
— ophiogramma .
— oculea .
Miana fasciuncula .
Celsena Haworthii .
List of Parasites bred from those families of the Noctuina which
are included in this volume . . . .114
CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES
IN THIS VOLUME.
LIY, fig. 1
LIV, fig. 2
Cymatophora duplaris .
LIY, fig. 3
„ fluctuosa .
LIY, fig. 4
• • .
LIY, fig. 5
LIY, fig. 6
„ ocularis .
LIY, fig. 7
LY, fig. 1
LV, fig. 2
LY, fig. 4
Diphthera Orion .
LV, fig. 5
Acronycta tridens .
LYI, fig. 1
„ psi .
LVI, fig. 2
LYI, fig. 3
• • •
LYI, fig. 4
LYI, fig. 5
LYI, fig. 6
CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES.
Family Bombycoid^: — continued
, ligustri .
, rumicis .
, myricse .
Leucania conigera .
,, obsoleta .
„ littoralis .
„ comma .
„ impura .
,, pallens .
Meliana flammea .
„ neurica .
„ micacea .
Xylophasia rnrea .
.. LYII, fig. 1
.. LYII, fig. 2
.. LYII, fig. 3
.. LYII, fig. 4
.. LYII, fig. 5
.. LYII, fig. 6
.. LYII, fig. 7
. LYIII, fig. 1
.. LYIII, fig. 2
. LYIII, fig. 3
. LYIII, fig. 4
.. LYIII, fig. 5
LIX, fig. 2
LIX, fig. 3
LIX, fig. 4
LIX, fig. 5
LX, fig. 1
LX, fig. 2
LX, fig. 3
LX, fig. 4
LX, fig. 5
LXI, fig. 1
LXI, fig. 2
LXI, fig. 3
LXI, fig. 4
LXI, fig. 5
LXII, fig. 1
LXII, fig. 2
LXII, fig. 3
. LXII, fig. 4
LXII, fig. 5
LXII, fig. 6
. LXIII, fig. 1
. LXIII, fig. 2
. LXIII, fig. 3
. LXIII, fig. 4
CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES.
Family Apamid^ — continued
Neuria saponariae .
Charseas graminis .
Luperina testacea .
„ cespitis .
Mamestra abjecta .
Apamea basilinea .
„ connexa .
„ unanimis .
„ furuncula .
Celsena Haworthii .
„ alsines .
„ blanda .
... LXIII, fig. 5
... LXIII, fig. 6
... LXIV, fig. 1
... LXVI, fig. 5
... LXIV, fig. 2
... LXIV, fig. 3
... LXIV, fig. 4
... LXV, fig. 1
... LXV, fig. 2
LXV, fig. 3
... LXV, fig. 4
LXV, fig. 5
... LXVI, fig. 1
... LXVI, fig. 2
... LXVI, fig. 3
... LXVI, fig. 4
... LXVII, fig. 1
... LXVII, fig. 2
... LXVII, fig. 3
... LXVII, fig. 4
... LXVII, fig. 5
...LXVIII, fig. 1
... LXVIII, fig. 2
... LXVIII, fig. 3
... LXVIII, fig. 4
... LXVIII, fig. 5
...LXVIII, fig. 6
... LXVIII, fig. 7
... LXIX, fig. 1
... LXIX, fig. 2
... LXIX, fig. 3
... LXIX, fig. 4
... LXIX, fig. 5
Plate LIV, fig. 3.
On the 12th September, 1869, Mr. George H.
Kenrick, of Inverhadden, by Kinloch Rannoch, kindly
sent me eight examples of the larva of this species, of
This larva, when full fed, is about seven-eighths of
an inch long, moderately stout and cylindrical, the
The ground colour a pale and dull olive green,
deeper in tint on the back, with a dorsal pulsating
stripe of dingy olive green ; the subdorsal stripe very
broad, of a dusky olive, sharply defined at its lower
edge, but softened above into the ground colour of the
back ; midway between it and the spiracles a fine
thread-like line of dull yellowish runs along the sides ;
the spiracles are black, each within a blackish-olive
blotch ; the tubercular dots are small and black, those
on the back have a ring of paler olive at their base ;
the dark olive of the subdorsal on one side unites with
that of the other side transversely on the twelfth seg-
ment, forming there an abrupt termination of the dark
colour. The head is reddish and a little shining,
VOL. iv. 1
I CYMAT0PFI0KA DUPLARIS.
having the ocelli as a black spot on each side, and the
mouth blackish; the base of papillse yellowish; on the
second segment is a small black polished plate. The
skin of the rest of the body is very thin, but without
any gloss — indeed, remarkable for its opacity of surface,
the segmental folds showing yellowish.
These larvas feed on birch, between united leaves.
(W. B., Note Book II, 188.)
Plate LIV, fig. 4.
On July 3rd, 1873, arrived some eggs of this species,
laid singly and in twos, on the edges mostly, of birch
leaves, from Mr. James Batty, of Sheffield. On the 7th,
when I first saw them, they were a pale whity-brown
or cream colour — turning during the night to a faint
grey tint, and on the afternoon of the 8th they began
"When first laid, the eggs were of the same pale straw-
colour, and the approach to a delicate grey scarcely to
The egg is oval and ribbed longitudinally and very
finely reticulated, and is gummed to the leaf length-
wise on a part of its surface.
The newly hatched larva is large in front, tapering
behind, of a whitish colour, with a very pale whity-
brown head ; on the 10th the larvas had become very
pale green. (W. B., Note Book II, 21.)
Plate LIV, fig. 7.
On the 28th of May, 1874, Mr. J. E. Fletcher, of
Worcester, very kindly sent me a dozen eggs of this
species which had been laid the 23rd and 26th of May ;
CYMATOPHORA OCULARIS. 6
he found the female moths, although impregnated, very
unwilling to deposit in captivity, but at last they chose
to lay their eggs singly, or in little groups of two or
three together, on paper rather than on the twigs of
poplar with which they had been supplied ; the hour of
laying was after dusk in the evening. One moth lived
eleven days after pairing, and then died without laying
In its general figure the egg is semi-spherical, convex
above and flattish beneath, its surface very finely
reticulated ; creamy-white in colour, with the margin
at the base of the shell colourless and pellucid in con-
trast to the opacity of the rest, over which the shell is
On the evening of the 1st of June, without the eggs
showing any previous change of colour, the larvae began
to hatch, four of them within half an hour of dusk, the
others in course of the night. The young larvse were
nearly one-eighth of an inch long, of a pale pellucid
straw colour, inclining to greenish, the segmental folds
showing pale yellow. By June 5th they were three-
sixteenths of an inch long, and one or two had, by this
time, united the poplar leaves by short, thick, silken
attachments, and they were all feeding on the green
cuticle. By the 12th the most forward were half an
inch in length, and others about three-eighths ; these
last showed a black dot on each side of the second
segment, while those half an inch long had a black dot
on each side of the second, third, fourth, eleventh, and
twelfth segments : the head buff colour, the body of
greenish-buff, with a broad green velvety interior
showing through the semi-transparent skin. Up to this
time they had been eating away the cuticle from both
upper and under sides of the leaves, fastened by
detached threads one upon the other; henceforward
they began and continued to eat quite through the
substance of the leaves from the edges, but each larva
was always concealed between two leaves united by a
couple of strong, broad-based, short, stud-like fasten-
4 CYMATOPHORA OCULARIS.
ings of white silk ; in this retreat, when not feeding,
the larva reposes with its body curved round— and
here also, when the time for a moult approaches, it lies
in a close coil, its head resting on the middle of one
side of the body.
Particularly noticing a larva, which moulted on
June 27th, I observed the body to be very soft and
delicate, velvety in appearance, of a pale buff tint ; the
head pale honey-yellow, rather glistening, with black
ocelli, and black on each side of the mouth ; two black
dots, one above the other, on the side of the second
and third segments, and one on the fourth, another
also on the twelfth segment. After the last moult,
when the larvae measured fully an inch in length, their
heads were pale brownish-orange, broadly marked with
black at the sides of the mouth and round the papillae,
the skin of the body still soft in texture, without the
least gloss excepting a narrow shining plate behind the
head, which is slightly glistening, and the anal flap
and legs ; the colour of the body delicate greyish-
green, showing through a pale buff skin, the dorsal
vessel seen pulsating distinctly, the spiracles flesh-
colour, and the colouring along their region pale yel-
lowish, the black dots just as before.
By the 4th of July two larvae had spun up, the two
others were still feeding, the rest having died off one
at a time at different stages, probably from being so
often interrupted by my investigations. Even at the
last, when mature, the habit of the larva is still to lie
curled round, with its head inwards, and towards, or
in contact with, the seventh or eighth segment of its
body. I found also that when turned out from its
domicile between two leaves, the larva, when placed
on a fresh leaf and another laid over, would quickly
spin new fastenings, but it was not easy to watch its
proceedings, for, when I raised the upper leaf but a
very little in order to peep, the larva would directly
strengthen and shorten the silk stud that I had prob-
ably stretched,, and it did so by taking the middle or
OYMATOPHORA OCULARIS. 5
thinnest part between its two front legs, and pulling
it inwards towards its body, and holding it there dex-
terously, whilst it spun shorter threads in a moment
or two to the surface of the leaves, bringing them into
close contact ; after having thus fortified itself, it
would afc once curl round into its favourite position,
and go to sleep until roused again on another side in
the same manner, when it would repeat the operations
for its security, and shut out further observation.
Three moths were bred, two on the 6th, and one on
the 9th of June, 1875.
The full-grown larvae, while crawling, measured
If to 1^ inches in length, moderately stout in propor-
tion, cylindrical, tapering very little anteriorly near
the broad head, and a little on the two hinder seg-
ments ; in point of colour the head was now orange-
ochreous, barred on either side the mouth with black
as far as the ocelli, which were included, and with
black square marks surrounding the pale antenna!
papillae, its surface a little granulous and shining ; the
skin of the body beautifully soft and smooth, without
gloss, excepting a narrow, shining, very pale, greyish
plate on the second segment and on the anal tip ; all
the legs shining ; its colouring above on the back very
faint yellowish, most tenderly tinged with greyish,
changing almost imperceptibly to primrose-yellow
along the spiracular region, and again below to the
same delicate tint as the back ; a very faint glaucous
pulsating vessel showed partially through the dorsal
region. On each side of the front margin of the second
segment were three black spots, on the side of the third
segment two black spots one above the other, and on
the side of the fourth one black spot, and one black
spot on the side of the twelfth segment ; the spiracles
were pale flesh-colour, the tubercular dots whity-
brown, which, together with their short and fine
single hairs, could only be discerned with a good lens.
The cocoon was placed in a hollow cave contrived
by spinning several leaves together at their edges, and
6 CYMATOPHORA OCULARIS.
was composed first of an open network of coarse silk
of a deep brownish-red colour, the meshes of which
were at first, when wet, quite regular and symmetrical
in some parts, and very flexible (at which time the
pale skin of the larva could be seen through them) ;
but these soon contracted, and were enveloped by the
closing up of the leafy surroundings.
When the cocoon was opened and divested of its
leaves, it was a remarkable specimen of reticulation ;
the outer foundation oval in form, three-fourths of an
inch long, made with very s-tout threads, leaving large
meshes of oval, pear-like, and angular shapes, filled
with a yery tangled layer of much finer silk, remind-
ing one of the smaller vessels of a skeletonised leaf.
The pupa was five- eighths of an inch in length,
thick, and dumpy in form and proportiou, the surface
roughened, except in the abdominal divisions, by
minute pits, and on the wing-covers and thorax by
corrugations ; the abdomen ending with two converg-
ing spines, their tops recurved, crossing each other,
and a few recurved short bristles round the abdominal
tip ; the colour black, the abdominal divisions dark
purplish dull red, the other parts a trifling glistening.
(W. B., 10, 7, 76; B.M.M., XIII, p. 90, 1876.)
Plate LV, fig. 5.
A larva on oak was received from Mr. G. 0. Bignell,
of Plymouth, August 6th, 1875. Length one inch and
a quarter, moderately stout, of nearly uniform width,
tapering very little on the last four segments, behind
the anal segment rounded off ; the head quite as wide as
the second segment, the rounded lobes well defined
on the crown, broad below at the sides, a little flat-
tened in front, the second and third segments rather
In colour the ground on the back of the second and
third segments is blackish- olive, on the fourth it is
blue-black, on the others, as far as the twelfth, deep
velvety black, the thirteenth drab colour. A large,
broad, pale bright yellow transverse patch is on the
back of the fifth, seventh, and tenth segments, which
strikingly relieves the velvety-black ground ; the sub-
dorsal line is a broken series of pale yellow spots, and
is followed by two other broken lines of similar spots ;
the former are absent on the fifth and show but little
on the sixth segments.
Along the side the ground colour is olive-drab, and
bears three longitudinal stout lines or stripes, of sub-
dued yellowish or a greyish-yellow ; the oval blackish
spiracles, ringed with this yellow, are along the middle
one. The lower part of the side and belly are drab
colour, becoming dusky on the anterior segments ; all
the legs are drab, and the ventral and anal feet
remarkably wide and furnished with numerous fine
hooks, which with the feet are very pale drab, and the
legs shining. The head is also shining, the top of
each lobe black ; below on each light yellow, thickly
spotted with black, the base of the papillse pale yellow.
On each segment is a transverse row of ten bright
red, wart-like tubercles, bearing fascicles of light
warm-brown, longish hairs, the two dorsal pairs of
these being close together, and nearly in the transverse
line, the anterior ones the smallest ; the pale yellow
patches have these tubercles of their yellow colour and
rather smaller, but with brown hairs like the others.
The subdorsal spots on the twelfth segment are
greatly enlarged ; on the back of the fourth segment
they form transverse streaks behind the red warts.
On the second segment is a narrow transverse bar of
shining blackish, bearing a series of four red warts,
The pattern on the thoracic segments is rather ob-
scured by the long hairs, the anterior ones projecting
over the head.
This larva spun itself up in a cocoon, in which the
8 DIPHTHERA ORION.
hairs of its body were interwoven ; a little more than
five-eighths of an inch long by three-eighths broad,
compact and somewhat ovate in form, and of light-
brown colour; spun within the angle of its cage
(August 10th) the web very opaque.
On the evening of June 4th, 1876, the moth, a S ,
On examining the cocoon, I found it had a small bit
or two of oak leaf, woven in, and was very strong in
texture. The pupa skin was little more than half an
inch in length, stout in proportion, tapering from the
lower margin of the wing-covers to the end of the
abdomen, where it was rounded off and furnished with
six equidistant, short, curved outwards, spikes on the
anterior surface ; on the dorsal surface from the
spiracles on each side was an anterior transverse line of
coarse and deep punctures, forming a roughened ridge,
nearly close to the division of the foregoing segment ;
on the fifth, sixth, and seventh beyond the thorax was
near the end of each, a plain projecting edge. Its
colour was very dark purplish-brown, nearly black,
and shining, except just at the segmental divisions,
the back being the most lustrous. (W. B., Note Book
Plate LVI, fig. 3.
One young larva on birch was received from Mr.
W. H. Cole, September 3rd, 1874; it was then five-
eighths of an inch long, and on the 9th was little
more than three-quarters of an inch in length, and
was then preparing to moult.
It was of a light greenish yellow, and its skin
glossy ; the head pale olive green, marked with black
on the top of each lobe and on the front margins and
lower parts of them ; two black dorsal marks on the
second segment, two dorsal black dots on the third,
ACRONYCTA LEPOEINA. 9
two on the fifth, two on the seventh, two very small
on the twelfth, and one on the thirteenth segment ;
those on the fifth and seventh segments bearing slight
tufts of black hairs. The ordinary tubercular situa-
tions indicated each by a fine shortish black hair ; the
dorsal line slightly marked by a greyish spot in each
segmental division ; the spiracles white delicately out-
lined with black. The anterior legs black, the ven-
tral prolegs with a black spot on each, and these, as
well as the anal pair, tipped with black hooks. The
whole surface of the body seems covered with long
hairs of the ground colour, which are curved and
radiating in all directions, some long straight ones in
front extending beyond the head.
After moulting, its new coat was covered with
longer hairs than before, of a pale greenish-yellow
colour, which almost concealed its body from view.
This larva unfortunately died on the 14th Septem-
ber, when about one inch in length. (W. B., Note
Book II, 119.)
Plate LVI, fig. 6.
On the 27th of July, 1883, a batch of eggs of this
species arrived from Mr. J. Gr. Ross, of Bathampton ;
they began to hatch, four of them, the same day, others
in the course of a day or two. The eggs were laid on
the underside of hawthorn leaves, were circular in form,
and at first were flat and like delicate scales, but as
they mature they rise to a slight conical eminence in
the centre, a boss from which numerous very fine ribs
radiate to the margin, this at the last becomes bun-like,
though very slightly so ; the colour is greenish, match-
ing well that of the under surface of the leaf, whereon
they were laid. Seven hatched on the 30th, two
more on the 1st of August, one on the 2nd.
The newly hatched larva is of a clear whitish ground
10 - ACRONYCTA STRIGOSA.
colour, with darkish brown head ; a deep, dingy,
pinkish plate on the second segment ; the thoracic seg-
ments tinged a little internally with a vessel of this
colour ; behind this the back is particoloured with this
and the white ground, as this pinkish colour appears
on two segments, alternating with two white ones, so
that beyond the thoracic segments are three distinct
bands of dingy pink, and two of faint greenish-white ;
the body bearing some long dusky hairs. It attacks
the lower cuticle of the leaf, and eats out little pits,
leaving only the upper cuticle, which then shows as a
transparent blotch. After feeding four or five days,
the deep pinkish marks and the head become dark
purplish brown, and the former can be well seen,
located on the second, fourth, fifth, eighth, ninth,
twelfth, and thirteenth segments on the back, and the
ground colour is a pale pellucid, rather bluish green.
The most forward individual moulted the first time
on the 2nd of August, while two others were laid up
for that purpose ; the one that had moulted was soon
feeding again on the shining upper surface of the leaf.
The head was now black, or black-brown, and the
dark marks crimson-brown ; the ground colour of a
cool pellucid green, all the skin shining as though
varnished. By the 8th others had moulted the second
time, as I found their cast skins, and they now showed
small darkish tubercles on the intermediate segments,
but the others were still conspicuously blotched on
the full width of the back ; the ground colour still a
cool translucent green. By the 14th of August they
had moulted the third time, and now had the head black,
and dark purplish crimson-brown blotches down the
middle of the back on every segment, but broadest on
those segments which first bore them and narrower
on the other segments, as on the sixth and seventh,
where they were bordered with faint greenish- white
distinctly, and similarly a little on the other segments,
but thinner and fainter ; the sides, belly, and legs were
of a lightish cool green colour ; the tubercles on the
ACRONYCTA STRIGOSA. 11
sides were of this same colour, but those on the dark
markings on the back were black, each emitting two or
three longish black hairs ; those on the lower part of
the body green hairs ; all the surface of head, body,
and hairs very glossy. On the 17th one had moulted
the fourth time ; the head was now green in the centre
of the face and black from the crown down the side of
each lobe to near the pale green upper lip. One laid
up for this moult had been badly bitten on the side of
the ninth segment and died ; another, a moult younger,
had died from part of the twelfth segment being eaten
away. Two others also got over this moult, and they
now fed by eating pieces out from the edges of the
leaves ; by the 20th they had become seven and a half
lines long. On the 23rd one had, during the previous
night, moulted the fifth time, and eaten up its cast skin ;
another had moulted a fifth time in the early morning,
its cast skin lying beside it, and another was laid up
waiting for its moult. The earliest was feeding well on
a hawthorn leaf, and was already nine lines in length ;
it was handsomer than before ; on the fifth segment the
second or outer pair of dorsal tubercles were promi-
nently developed into slight humps, and the back of
the twelfth segment was elevated into a very prominent
hump, with two apices formed by the second pair of
tubercles, from which the hinder slope downward is
continued by the thirteenth segment to the end of the
anal flap ; the ground colour of the body was a rich
velvety yellow green, well relieved by a deep crimson-
brown dorsal marking, beginning on the head, where it
occupied the full breadth, but on the second segment
narrowing towards the third, and then similarly towards
the fourth, on which it widened to embrace the rather
humped tubercles on the fifth, and then diminished to
no more than a broad stripe on the sixth and seventh,
but suddenly widened to embrace the area of all four
tubercles on the eighth and ninth, and thence was very
gradually less to the hump on the twelfth, whence only
a narrow dorsal stripe passed to the anal flap ; all the
12 ACEONYCTA STRIGOSA.
tubercles were of the yellow-green ground colour, even
those on the dorsal marking, though the bases of these
latter were blackish j the spiracles white, finely out-
lined with black. The head glossy, the second seg-
ment glistening slightly; a faint yellowish margin
bordered the dorsal marking. The tubercles on the
back each emit a few short hairs and one very long
hair of blackish colour, but those on the lower part of
the body were whitish, of varying lengths, radiating
and sweeping the surface on which the larva may
happen to be. The dorsal tubercles range across the
back of a segment in the direction of a convex curve,
quite a modification of the ordinary trapezoidal ar-
One larva at the penultimate moult was unable to
free itself from its old head-piece, which covered the
mouth and caused the larva to perish miserably of
One variety occurred after the last moult in which
the. whole skin of the larva was of the richest deep
velvety-purple, crimson-brown, relieved only slightly
by the shining black tubercles, with crimson tips,
When the larva is quite full-fed it becomes very
dingy, dark velvety-green, and the purplish-brown of
the back fades almost away ; the tubercular black spots
remain, and are conspicuous with a ring of paler green
at the base of each on the back, and in some, but not
in all, a paler greenish dorsal stripe appears.
The first larva that was full-fed ate its way into a
piece of rotten wood for pupation on the 28th August ;
a second did so on the 30th ; at the same time the third
entered a piece of raspberry stem.
On the 9th of September Mr. Ross sent me seven
larvae, all in their last coats ; one was full-fed and was
of a dove colour on the back, the sides a warm olive-
green, a faintly paler dorsal stripe showed in an inter-
rupted manner on the dorsal marking whilst the larva
was burrowing into rotten wood the next day. This
ACRONYCTA STRIGOSA. 13
dorsal marking was of a beautiful dove colour, with
black tubercular spots, tipped with bright green; the
sides of this larva were at the last a dingy drab-green.
The order of the spots is to be arranged as a curve
rather than a trapezoid, the two outer spots of the
four are each rather larger than the two inner ones,
and from the eighth segment they all gradually decrease
in size to the eleventh, but ou the twelfth segment they
are larger and in pairs, forming a trapezoid. (W. B.,
Note Book IV, 208-9.)
Plate LVII, fig. 1.
On the 2nd of July, 1881, I received from Mr. J.
G. Ross, of Bathampton, eight eggs of this rare species,
one was laid on a piece of bark, the others on muslin.
In shape the egg is circular, convex above, and finely
and numerously ribbed ; the surface without gloss,
and of the faintest possible tinge of pink, irregularly
reticulated all over with crimson ; the next day most
of them had become a more decided pink, and the
reticulation darker crimson, on one egg quite purplish-
brown ; in all of them the spaces of pink-brown colour
between the reticulations were roundish, and of vary-
ing sizes, some larger and some smaller than others ;
on the evening of the 4th three had changed to a
darkish brown, with a largish central black spot.
On the night of July 4th three eggs hatched at
10.30 p.m., another by the morning of the 5th, and
two more on the 7th.
The newly-hatched larva has a shining black head,
and plate on second segment ; the third and fourth
segments are light pinkish-grey, or violet-grey, and
also the eleventh segment, which is the palest and
most translucent ; the back on all the other segments
showing dark brown, the belly and legs light pinkish-
14 ACRONYCTA ALNI.
grey. Rather long, blackish hairs are on all the seg-
ments, except the pale eleventh, which appears desti-
tute of them.
In a couple of days after feeding on the cuticle of
an alder leaf the paler translucent parts of the larva
are tinged with olive greenish, and the middle seg-
ments of the body are banded transversely with dark
purplish-brown, and very shining.
By the 9th they were all feeding well on the cuticle
of the underside of alder leaves, eating out little hollow
patches which turn brown ; resting always in a curved
posture, and, when waiting to moult, with the head
turned round near the tail; the darker parts of the
larva were purplish-brown, or crimson, the pale seg-
ments semi-transparent whitish, showing purplish-
brown tubercular dots, the whole surface very glossy,
as though varnished ; always resting with the head
bent round on one side.
In the meantime two of the earliest had moulted the
first time, and on the 10th were feeding well on the
cuticle of tbe underside of the alder leaf; the pale
parts were more opaque, but very glossy ; they bad
distinct black-pointed hairs.
On the 13th it seemed that the two oldest had
moulted the second time, as the arrangement of the
colours had changed as follows : head black, second
segment dark crimson-brown, third and fourth seg-
ments creamy- white, with a broad stripe of crimson-
brown each side of the back, and lower down with a
narrow stripe of the same colour ; tubercles black ;
segments 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 dark crimson-brown, inter-
sected by a fine creamy-white dorsal line ; segments
10 and 11 creamy- white, the twelfth dark crimson-
brown, the thirteenth creamy- white ; all the skin ex-
tremely glossy ; they were now beginning to eat the
entire thickness of the alder leaf.
On the 16th and 17th the most forward had spun
some silk, and was laid up on it for its next moult, which
occurred on the afternoon of the 18th ; the larva now
ACRONYCTA ALNI. 15
bore a pair of long clubbed hairs on each side of the
second segment, all the other hairs being simply
pointed, and of ordinary length ; the dark segments
were now blacker and a white subspiracular line ran
from the second segment to the ninth ; after a couple
of hours this larva began to feed. The leaves now
being eaten clean away between a couple of ribs, in
oblong portions, in a way which should well indicate
the presence of this larva on an alder tree ; and the
singular way in which the larvse rest, with the head
turned round to the tail, has been constant with each
of them from the very first.
Two individuals of this third moult had not only the
two pair of clubbed pale whity-brown hairs on the
second segment, but a pair equally long and divergent
on the eleventh and twelfth segments, while on other
segments, excepting the third, fourth, and seventh,
the light-brown hairs are decidedly thickened and
rigid, blunt at the ends, and on the eighth, ninth, and
tenth have a slight clubbed or thickened, but flat
appearance ; the colour of the back on the fourth seg-
ment was cream colour, with light-brown tubercles ;
the hinder part of the back of the tenth, with the
whole upper area of the eleventh segment, of a rich
cream-colour, a dorsal line on the twelfth, and the
whole of the thirteenth segment creamy-white. By
the 22nd of July they had grown to be about an inch
long, and the colouring of the dark parts of the back
was olive-brown, the tubercles black and prominent,
excepting the dorsal pair on the fourth segment, which
had only the tips black of their outer portion, the inner
portion pale olive-brownish ; those on the back of the
twelfth segment were dark olive brown ; the tubercular
spots on the sides and ventral prolegs were black, but
very much smaller and less prominent than those of
the back ; the plate on the second segment was black,
bearing six prominent black tubercles, the margin of
skin next the head being white, and the sides along
the spiracular region were white on the anterior
16 AORONYCTA ALNI.
segments, and very much tinged with cool violet grey
on the middle segments of the body, and this grey
colour ascended obliquely to the back on the twelfth
segment, where it was dorsally divided by a stripe of
white. On the back and sides of the pale cream-
coloured eleventh segment the tubercles were absent,
though their situation was most faintly indicated by
the merest rudiments of warts and hairs of the white
colour, only to be detected with a lens ; the spiracles
were black and oval, with a halo of white. In short,
there was a white dorsal line, much interrupted, show-
ing chiefly near the segmental divisions ; on all the dark
segments also a white subdorsal, a prespiracular line,
and a subspiracular stripe ; the belly olive-brown,
darkest on the anterior, and whitish on the posterior
segments, thus corresponding with the colouring of the
back. Anterior legs black ; the ventral and anal pro-
legs black on their outer sides.
The most forward laid up on a spinning of silk on a
leaf in the afternoon of the 22nd, and by 5 o'clock on
the 24th it had moulted ; after being quiescent for fifty
hours until an hour or so before the moult occurred,
when it at intervals turned the head and front half of
the body from one side to the other. It had now
assumed the normal colouring of the full-grown larva
and was black, with the large yellow patch on each
segment, with flattened, spear-pointed, black, glossy
On the 8th July, 1881, 1 had one egg of this species
given me by Mr. Bignell. It hatched on the 10th ; the
first moult occurred on the 14th, the second on the
18th, the third on the 27th July, and the fourth and
last moult on the 4th August. This larva, when
hatched, was placed on an oak leaf, from which it ate
the cuticle of the underside, and after moulting the
second time began to eat holes quite through the leaf,
and soon afterwards large portions from the edges of
the leaf, leaving only the mid-rib. It was tried more
than once with alder, which it refused to eat, though
ACRONYCTA ALNI. 17
it was content to lie up and moult on a leaf of alder, it
left it to feed again on oak. On the 12th of August it
was full-fed and began to excavate its puparium in a
piece of rotten wood, and closed up the entrance in the
evening. The seven larvae fed up separately from the
2nd to 12th of August, and six perfect moths appeared
in 1882, viz. on June 6th, a g; June 7th, two c? ;
June 9th, a ? ; June 11th, a S (these last two I
paired) ; and on the 17th June, two ? .
I put the S , which emerged like most of the others
about midday, to the ? the same evening, when copu-
lation ensued almost immediately, and when fairly
coupled I let them remain for the night. In the course
of the next day, when I saw they had separated, I
removed one from the other, intending to have the S
as a cabinet specimen, but when they were in separate
pots I felt puzzled to know their sex, as the shape of
the abdomen and their antennas seemed alike.
In this uncertainty I fed them daily with sugar and
water, expecting the appearance of eggs to decide which
was really the female. I could see that one moth was
rather larger than the other, and while I waited the
smaller had become so riotous as to spoil the wing
fringes. After three days I found two eggs were laid
by the largest moth, and from their appearance I had
some doubt whether they were fertile. After a week
had passed these two eggs, and four others laid subse-
quently, had not changed colour and were shrivelling
up, quite sterile.
Accordingly, in the evening of the 18th of June I
returned the male insect to the company of his former
mate, and just as at first, a week before, they again
coupled immediately, and were left alone, and I decided
to let both remain together as long as they might live.
Eggs now began to be laid, at first sparingly, then
more numerously, on alder and oak leaves put for the
purpose, and a few were laid on the side and bottom,
and on the ieno cover of the pot. The egg-laying
took place every evening at dusk, while on the wing
VOL. iv. 2
18 ACEONYCTA ALNI.
for some half-hour or so ; possibly also in the twilight
The male soon became shabby, and at length grew
weak, though it came up to feed for a week or ten
days, then kept down amongst the leaves two or three
days, and died, worn almost past recognition.
The gravid female continued to lay every evening up
to the 7th July, when she too was exhausted, and died
— after having laid the astonishing number of about
315 apparently good eggs. Those on the jam pot,
about twenty-five, I kept for myself ; all the others,
laid on the leaves or leno, I gave away in batches to
twenty-one persons, who had kindly helped me for
some years with larval subjects for my pencil.
The egg of alni is of a waxen whitish colour when
first laid, and in a couple of days changes gradually to
dingy purplish, with several pale dirty whitish spots
on the surface. These, as the egg matures, grow
whiter, and the purplish intervals become a reticulation
of crimson ; its next change is to grow dark and dingy
just a few hours before hatching, and this takes place
about the twelfth or fourteenth day after the egg was
The larva moults four times, and at each moult it
devours the cast skin ; should it fail to do this, it
It will feed on alder, oak, birch, sallow, hawthorn,
blackthorn, rose, dogwood, elm. But whatever the
food given it at first, it must be continued to the last,
as it does not like to change from one kind of food to
another; that, at least, is my own experience. And
from its hatching up to the very last, it always, when
not feeding, reposes with its head and front segments
bent round by the side of the body ; indeed, it is very
seldom that one finds it stretched out at full length, if
not actually walking or feeding.
When the larva is full-fed the yellow spots lose their
brightness, and become in part greenish, and then it
requires a piece of touchwood, or some stout pithy
ACRONYCTA ALNI. 19
stem, or cork, or other similar substance, wherein to
excavate the chamber requisite for its pupation. (W.
B., Note Book IV, 71—73, and 148, 149).
Plate LVII, fig. 3.
A larva found on peach, September 19th, 1874, one
and a half inches in length, moderately stout, segments
plump and well defined, the twelfth with two slight
dorsal humps behind, tubercles bearing radiating hairs.
The ground-colour of the back as far as the spiracles
deep ochreous, streaked and freckled with black ; on
the back of each segment from the fourth to twelfth
inclusive a large quadrate velvety-black area, contain-
ing near its outer edge on either side an oblong
squarish subdorsal blotch of pure white, the dorsal
spot of bright orange being in the middle of the black
at the front of the segment, and surrounded by the
black area behind as far as the second tubercle, when
the black is relieved by a thin transverse bar of bright
orange-red, and this in turn by another bar of the
freckled ground colour ; the spiracles white, set within
a velvety-black shuttle-shaped mark, giving a strong
relief to the white subspiracular stripe, which forms a
projecting zigzag ridge; below this thewhole ventral sur-
face and ventral and anal prolegs are deep smoky-brown.
The five tubercles on each side of a segment have the
dorsal pair very close together and pinkish ; the front
one of these is situated on the hinder end of the white
subdorsal blotch, the hinder one is a little nearer the
side, the next below is brownish-grey, and the follow-
ing one is red, on a bright red roundish larger spot,
upon the white subspiracular stripe, which it inter-
rupts ; the lowest tubercle is grey-brown. The hairs
that radiate from the dorsal tubercles of the fifth seg-
ment are dingy and smoke-coloured, and are some-
20 ACRONYCTA RUMICIS.
what thick and tufted ; on the sixth segment they are
pale flesh colour and whitish and less tufted, and still
less tufted on the seventh, and only radiating on the
following segments ; the front part of the thirteenth
segment marked like the others, the anal flap dark
smoky-brown, varied a little with brownish-ochreous.
Segments 2, 3, and 4 are marked in a more linear
manner, with white in the subdorsal region, though
interrupted ; the subspiracular ridge is brownish-grey,
with a spot of buff just above it on the third and fourth
segments. Anterior legs blackish. The head black
and shining, the lobes outlined on the front of the
face, and marked on the sides with brownish-ochreous.
Most of the hairs on the back and sides pale tawny
flesh colour, with some few brownish-grey longer ones.
From the way in which this larva carries itself in
bending down the thoracic segments the fifth segment
appears a little humped, more especially from the
hairy tufts it bears. (W. B., Note Book I, 79, 85,
Plate LVII, fig. 4.
During last summer, by the kindness of that indus-
trious and expert collector, Mr. Meek, I had the oppor-
tunity of figuring and rearing a larva of this species,
which well deserves its name of auricoma.
It was taken on oak, and both oak and bramble
were given to it for food, and at length it seemed to
prefer the latter, and on the 13th July it spun its
silken cocoon on the underside of a bramble leaf, and
the moth emerged on the 3rd of August.
The full-grown larva was about one inch and a half
in length, and cylindrical, but the head smaller than
the second segment. Ground colour of the body and
ventral prolegs a dark slaty-grey ; head and anterior
legs black and shining ; a black plate on the second
ACRONYCTA AURICOMA. 21
segment; all the segments divided by very narrow
black bands ; a broad velvety black transverse band
across the middle of the back of each segment, on
which are placed four orange tubercles in the usual
order, the anterior pair being much the longest, ex-
cepting on the third and fourth segments, where they
are of equal size and placed in a transverse row ; all
the tubercles are furnished with bright golden-yellow
silky hairs, which give the larva a very beautiful
appearance. The spiracles white, ringed with black.
The sides of the body slightly garnished with hairs of
a pale drab colour. (W. B., 1, 67; E.M.M. Ill, 261,
Plate LVII, fig. 6.
I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. George H.
Kenrick, of Inverhadden, for the opportunity of offer-
ing a description of the full-grown larva of this
species, which I have proved by breeding the moth (as
far as I know) for the first time.
The larva, taken in Perthshire, reached me 12th
September, 1869 ; it ate, apparently without prefer-
ence, sweet-gale, sallow, heath, or ling ; spun itself up
in a tough silken cocoon covered with moss on the
15th, and the moth — a female — appeared on June 28th,
I may mention that a Morayshire example of this
larva, sent me for example about the same time by
Mr. Longstaff, showed a decided partiality for birch.
The Perthshire larva I figured on September 12th,
and at the same time noted the following particulars.
The larva was one inch and a half in length, mode-
rately stout, the last three segments seen to taper a
little to the anal extremity when looked at from above ;
the head rather flattened in front, widest at the sides
just above the mouth, and scarcely less than the second
22 ACEONYCTA M.YRIGM.
segment, but the two lobes were rounded and well
defined on the crown ; the second segment was almost
flat on the back, though all the other segments were
remarkably rounded and plump, and the segmental
divisions deeply cut.
The ground colour was a rather smoky deep olive-
green ; the head black and shining, the lobes outlined
with pale olive, the base of the papillae lemon-yellow,
the mouth olive-green ; the second segment had a
black shining plate on the back, divided in the centre
by a thin line of yellowish olive ; the third segment had
an orange-red transverse central band extending to the
subdorsal region and dividing a broad, oval, dorsal,
black velvety mark, with an olive tubercle in front at
each end; the fourth segment had a similar broad
dorsal oval of black, bounded on either side by a large
subdorsal lemon-yellow tubercle ; on each segment, ex-
cepting the first two, there was a transverse black
velvety broad band, somewhat saddle-shaped, and upon
this, in the subdorsal region, from the fifth to the
thirteenth segment inclusive, was a conspicuous lemon-
yellow blotch, something of a triangular form, but with
rounded angles ; the lower side marking well the sub-
dorsal region, and bearing on its hinder angle, sloping
upwards, two large wart-like tubercles of the same
colour, and almost close together ; the spiracles were
white, and situated in the bottom part of the velvety-
black transverse bands, and a little above each, on
black band, was an olive tubercle ; immediately beneath
the spiracles was an inflated and rather punctured
stripe of bright orange-red running along the sides ;
below this were other olive tubercles, two on the
lower side of each segment ; the ventral surface was
also of the olive ground colour ; the prolegs were of a
darker smoky olive, the anterior legs black.
All the tubercles were furnished with fascicles of
hairs of a smoky-olive tint ; those on the third segment
were longer, more numerous than the others, and
directed forwards to the crown of the head; some
ACRONYOTA MYRIC^. 23
longer hairs also proceeded irregularly from the twelfth
segment, pointing backwards.
The Morayshire larva was much like the foregoing,
save that it had black hairs mixed with the olive ones :
its subdorsal blotches were less bright, though of a
deeper tint of yellow ; and there was more orange than
red in the transverse band of the third segment, as
well as in the subspiracular stripe, which last also
was interrupted at the segmental divisions. (W. B.,
8, 70; E.M.M. VII, 83, 1870.)
Plate LVIII, fig. 1.
On the 17th May, 1865, I received six larvae of this
species from Mr. Dorney, of Brighton, which he col-
lected for me on a very wet night, while they were
feeding on Triticum repens and other grasses ; three of
them were of a bright ochreous tint, and the others an
almost uniform grey variety. They were all cylindrical
in form, tapering but very little anteriorly, and an inch
and a half long.
In the first-mentioned variety the colour of the back
was deep ochreous, the dorsal line pale sulphur-yellow,
bordered on either side by a black line, and well defined
in its entire length. The subdorsal line was rather
broad, of equal width, and uninterruptedly black
throughout, followed by a pale yellow line, finely edged
below with black ; next was a stripe of pale ochreous,
then another pale yellow line finely edged above with
black and followed by a broad stripe of deep ochreous
broadly edged with black both above and below, the
black spiracles being along the lower edge. Above the
feet was a stripe of pale dull ochreous, the belly and
prolegs being slightly darker. On the back of each
segment only the anterior pairs of black dots were
visible. The head brownish, streaked, and mottled
24 LEUCANIA OONIGEEA.
The other variety was of a brownish-grey tint, with
all the lines and stripes less distinct, but all disposed
in the same order as above described ; but the yellow
lines of the former variety were, in these, represented
by lines of grey, and the ground colour of the back
was brownish-grey. The dorsal line was grey, edged
with black, and the subdorsal a continuous line of
grey-brown, edged with blackish lines above and below,
but interrupted above and nearly continuous below.
The lateral lines and stripes were devoid of black, and
delicately defined with brown edges.
The larvae fed until the end of May, and the moths
emerged between the 8th and 12th of July following.
(W. B., 20, 9, 66 ; EMM. Ill, 137, 1866.)
On the 26th of September, 1877, I received from
Mr. J. Gr. Ross, of Bathampton, a cluster of eight or
nine eggs laid by a ? of this species, which he had
captured at Freshwater, at sugar, on September 8th,
and kept alive with sugar, honey, and water.
The egg is roundish, having a slight depression at
some part of the surface, which is apparently smooth,
and very polished, of a delicate straw-yellow colour, not
changing colour till the 24th October, when these eggs
became brownish-ochreous. (W. B., Note Book III,
Plate LVIII, fig. 5.
On the 7th of October, 1864, I received three larvae
from Mr. Johns, of Babbicombe; he continued on
subsequent days, as weather permitted, to search for
more in the neighbourhood of Torquay, and succeeded
in securing another ; unfortunately, from casualties by
LEUCANIA PUTRESCENS. 25
ichneumons, &c, only one healthy larva went to earth,
(12th of October), retiring half an inch under the sur-
face, close to the roots of a tuft of a common grass
(Poa annua), on which it had previously fed, and spin-
ning a cocoon with particles of mould.
The moth appeared August 3rd, 1865, a well-marked
The larva was of a pale greyish-ochreous tint gene-
rally, striped longitudinally after the manner of its
congeners. The head mottled with dusky grey and
ochreous, with a black streak bordering the front of
each lobe, followed by a white streak on each side of
the central portion. Dorsal line whitish, conspicuous
only on the second, third, and fourth segments, after-
wards nearly obliterated by the dusky edging enclosing
it ; and on either side a dorsal broad stripe of mottled
greyish-ochreous, followed by a pale ochreous stripe,
and a greyish-ochreous darker stripe. The subdorsal
line whitish, very finely edged above and below with
dusky greyish-brown, followed by a broad stripe of
mottled ochreous, then a lateral whitish line, finely
edged with dark greyish-brown ; below this a broad
greyish-brown stripe, the spiracles being situated
along its lower edge, the belly and legs pale ochreous,
The ordinary spots and spiracles black. The shining
plate on the second segment dusky between the lines.
(W. B., 3, 8, 65 ; E.M.M. II, 94, 1865.)
Plate LIX, fig. 1.
On the 13th of May, 1864, I found full-fed larvse of
Leucania littoralis at roots of Ammophila arundinacea ;
I have met with these larvae for some years, having
first, accidentally, in 1861, captured a small one, which,
after feeding up and being duly figured, was reared ;
when very young their colour is glaucous green, with
26 LEUOANIA LITTORALIS.
longitudinal stripes, assimilating closely to the under-
side of the almost cylindrical blades of their food-
plant ; after April they leave their hiding-places and
burrow beneath the sand, having by this time con-
siderably increased in size, and having also become
much paler in tint, some individuals being almost
whitish green, others of a pale flesh colour. (W. B.,
B.M.M., I, 48, 1864.)
Plate LIX, fig. 3.
Having for several seasons searched in vain during
the spring for the larva of Leucania comma, I this
summer, towards the end of June, obtained eggs from
a female, which deposited them in a cluster on a tuft
of Dactylis glomerata, at the axil of the sheath round
a stem. In a fortnight they hatched, and for the first
few days the larvae were exceedingly active and rest-
less, crawling over the grass, spinning threads, and
suspending themselves from the tops of their food ;
after their first moult they settled well down to their
food, and excepting in very bright sunshine, did not
seem to shun the light. They had enormous appetites,
and devoured the greater part of three large tufts of
the grass, eating always from the top downwards.
They did not increase in size after the 10th of August,
but continued to feed nearly to the end of the month,
when they retired an inch and a half below the surface
of the earth, close to the roots of the plant, and spun
silken cocoons with a slight covering of earth. On
removing these on the 5th September one was broken
(a proof of their fragile texture), and the larva was coiled
up within alive, and looking rather smaller and darker
than before it had spun.
The larvae were striped longitudinally, and bore a
very strong resemblance to their congeners, impura,
jpallens, lithargyrea, 2^id.jpudorina. They were reddish-
LEUOANTA COMMA. 27
brown, dull ochreous-brown,or dingy greyish-ochreous,
varying but little ; a thin thread of pale ochreous edged
with dusky brown formed the dorsal line, on either side
of which was a space of dingy brown, followed by a
line of dusky atoms, and then a stripe of the ochreous
ground colour. The subdorsal line brown, edged ex-
ternally with blackish at the anterior portion of each
segment ; next to it, a thread of pale ochreous edged
with reddish-brown, then a broad stripe of ochreous
ground colour edged below with reddish-brown, and
again with pale ochreous in fine thread-like stripes ; a
broad brown lateral stripe followed, at the lower edge
of which were the black spiracles, with a broad pale-
ochreous stripe below them ; the belly and legs
ochreous-grey ; ordinary dots black when present, but
not visible in some specimens ; head brown, streaked
and mottled with blackish. The chief distinguishing
character by which this larva can be known from those
of L. impura and lithargyrea is the addition of the
extra line between the dorsal and subdorsal. (W. B.,
12, 9, 64; E.M.M., I, 140, 1864.)
Plate LIX, fig. 4.
After waiting many years, I have at length had the
satisfaction of figuring the larvaB of this species, and
breeding the moths ; and now have the pleasure of
offering some account of the larva, and of returning
my thanks to the three friends who have helped me,
viz. to Mr. Howard Vaughan, for the first examples,
June 21st and July 5th, 1870, and again in June, 1871 ;
secondly to Mr. C. G. Barrett, for larvae in April and
May ; and thirdly to Mr. Henry Laver, in June, 1871.
The chief food of the larva consists of the leaves of
Arundo johragmites, though it will eat, and is sometimes
found on, Phalaris arundinacea, as well as on other
coarse grasses growing amongst reeds in wet places ;
28 LEUOANIA STRAMINEA.
it remains on its food-plant and hides itself by day
under and amongst the mingled leaves, and comes forth
at night to feed ; from the structure of the prolegs and
their terminal discs, it is enabled to obtain a firm
footing on the smooth surfaces of the reed stems and
leaves, without any danger of being blown off, or
falling into the water over which it must be often
The habits of the rest of the genus lead me to sup-
pose that the larva is hatched in autumn and hyber-
nates while yet small ; I have had individuals no more
than half an inch long sent me at various dates from
the end of April to the beginning of June, the growth
of the reeds probably influencing the rate of their deve-
lopment, but I found that when once they had begun
to feed, they took about five weeks to attain full
growth ; larvae which were ichneumoned lingered on
longer, up to the time of the appearance of the first
specimens of the imago.
The larva in its immature state, when half an inch
long, was very slender, of a dull greyish-brown colour,
with an almost blackish dorsal line, and several faint
lines along the sides, by the arrangement of which
one identified it readily enough as a true Leucania ;
afterwards, at each moult, it became a little paler and
brighter coloured, its pattern of longitudinal lines and
stripes remaining relatively the same.
When full-grown it measured one and five-eighths
to one and three-quarters inches in length, slender,
and tapering a little at each end, especially towards
the head, which was the smallest segment. It was
tolerably cylindrical, the ventral prolegs rather long
and well developed, the extremity of each furnished
with a circlet of sharp hooks, the anal pair being
usually extended behind in the line of the body, and
the others often appearing a little sprawling according
to the exigence of position; the head was slightly
flattened above, and the antennal papilla? well deve-
loped, projecting forwards in line with the head and
LEUCANIA STRAMINBA. 29
body ; the skin was remarkably smooth, the segmental
divisions being scarcely indicated — chiefly, in fact, by
fine wrinkles forming themselves when the larva bent
itself round in the graceful postures it assumed, when
actively engaged in feeding.
The ground colour of the back and sides was
brownish-ochreous, but, with the exception of a stripe
on either side the back, and another again lower down,
this was thickly covered with minute, wavy, linear,
greyish freckles ; the dorsal line dark grey, sometimes
blackish-grey, having a fine central pale thread ; the
subdorsal line similar to the dorsal, but rather paler,
both in the central thread and in its lines of grey
edging ; it was followed by the second stripe of the
ground colour, then another pale line with dark edges,
precisely similar to the subdorsal, though rather pale
ochreous in tint ; below this was a broad stripe of
the freckled ground colour, most strongly freckled
along its upper and lower edges, and so little freckled
along its middle region that sometimes a line of the
plain ground colour could be seen there ; the spiracles
were along the lower freckled edge, whitish-grey,
faintly outlined with black ; the pale ochreous sub-
spiracular stripe was still paler at its edges, the belly
and legs being of the same colour, but a trifle deeper
in tint ; the tips of the ventral prolegs were dark
brown ; the head was brownish-ochreous, brown at the
mouth and shining, as was also the upper surface of
the second segment.
I have distinguished all these markings as well as I
could, but in truth, the whole surface is so much of
the same depth and colouring, especially on the back
and sides, as to produce a very soft uniform appear-
ance. Even the tubercular dots appear wanting,
though really they are present and even black in
colour, but then they are so minute as not to be
noticed without a lens.
When the larva is full-fed it bends down a leaf of
the reed, or fastens two or more leaves together, and
30 LEUCANIA STRAMINEA.
there spins a slight and rather open-worked cocoon of
greyish silk, the upper surface flattened, within which
it changes to a pupa. The perfect insects appeared
between the 7th of July and the 9th of August.
To give some notion of the extent to which this
species suffers from parasites, chiefly small ichneu-
mons, though sometimes dipterous, I may mention
that of twenty specimens sent me by Mr. Vaughan
not one had escaped being stung, and, from those he
retained for himself, he succeeded in rearing but one
moth. (W. B., 11, 71 ; E.M.M., VIII, 248, 1872.)
Plate LX, fig. 1.
After many attempts to rear this species from eggs,
I have at length succeeded, much to my satisfaction.
The moth is common enough, yet the larva is not
often found by collectors, even when specially search-
ing for grass-feeders, as I have had ample proof
through many seasons. Eggs, however, can readily
be obtained, and in previous years friends have sup-
plied me with them that duly hatched, but the young
larvae always died or escaped when a few days old.
When they leave the eggs they are exceedingly active
and restless, evincing no desire for food, but seem
bent on escaping from confinement; possibly the
proper species of grass not having been supplied,
previous broods having been placed on Triticum
reopens and Dactylis glomerata.
I am indebted to Mr. D'Orville for a further supply
of eggs in September, 1865, which hatched during
their transit by post, and the young larvae were put on
a tuft of Air a csespitosa, and after a day or two of
incessant exercise they settled to their food, eating-
only the cuticle or green portions of the blades, leav-
ing transparent patches on the grass.
They appeared to hybernate in December, but as
LEUCANIA PALLBNS. 31
they were kept within doors all the winter, their hyber-
nation was but partial, for I observed them once or
twice on the tops of the grass in January or February,
at that time about half an inch long, and much darker
than most of their congeners at that stage of growth.
When nearly an inch long they ate the grass through
generally, from the tops downwards, remaining on it
by day if their glass covering was shaded, but other-
wise hiding close to the roots.
The most forward one was full-grown by the 14th
March, and the latest by the 30th May, 1866, the
perfect insects appearing from June 4th to July 9th.
The larva3 were cylindrical, with the ground colour
ochreous, greyish, or greyish-ochreous, with a whitish
dorsal line outlined with dark grey running through
the middle of an oval shape of brownish-grey on each
segment. The subdorsal line was whitish, margined
above with a greyish stripe, and below by a thin
brownish line, and after an interval of the ground
colour, another fine line of brown, edged below with a
thin line of pale ochreous, followed by a broad stripe
of greyish, the black spiracles being along its lower
edge ; below was a broad stripe of pale ochreous ;
belly and forelegs oclireous-grey. The ordinary dots
along the back dark brown, and very small. The head
mottled with grey-brown. (W. B., 1866 ; E.M.M., III,
On the 8th of July, 1881, I received several eggs of
this species laid on the surface of a glass-topped box
from Mr. Sydney Webb, who had sacrificed fourteen
L females to obtain them, but one female, taken in cop.
on June 29th, laid these eggs on the night of July 3rd,
or early in the morning of July 4th. The eggs were
in a group at the junction of the top and side of the
32 TAPINOSTOLA BONDII.
parent moth ; three or four were laid singly about the
side of the box. The shape of the egg is round or
globular, with a slight depression on part of its sur-
face ; the shell seems to be most minutely pitted ; the
colour a light greenish-yellow and glistening ; by the
15th July the eggs became of a slight tint of flesh
colour, and showed at one part a faint spot of brown
through the surface.
In the afternoon of July 17th thirteen of the eggs
hatched, and the young larvse seemed strong and
crawled actively about the box ; their bodies were of
the faintest tinge of flesh colour, with brown heads
and plates (some were darker brown than the others) ;
the anterior part of the thirteenth segment having a
narrow plate beside the anal flap ; the plate on the
second segment was narrow, and far back from the
head, and was paler than the others.
Without much hope I placed these larvae on striped
ribbon-grass in a neighbouring garden, being unable
to find their proper food, Festuca arundinacea, but I
saw them no more; and when I sought for them in
April, 1882, I found no trace of them on the stems.
On the 12th July, 1883, I received another batch of
eggs from Mr. Webb ; the larvse hatched on the 26th,
and were put on Festuca arundinacea. (W. B., Note
Book IV, 78.)
Plate LX, fig. 3.
I have to express my deep sense of thankfulness to
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher for his great kindness in supply-
ing me with a dozen examples of the larva on the 18th
of September, 1882, and on subsequent occasions with
their food, which otherwise I could not have obtained
for them, also for points of interest connected with
the discovery of the larva by his friend, Mr. F. D.
Wheeler, of Norwich, some three or four years ago,
MELTANA FLAMMEA. 33
who, while collecting in the Norfolk fens, was interested
in the appearance of this larva, and took some home,
where they spun up in the heads of reeds, and yielded
the moth in the following spring.
I found, just as I had been instructed by Mr. Fletcher,
that the larvse spent most of their time within the old
hollow stems of Arundo phragmites, several harbouring
together in a stem, wherein they lay stretched out at
full length, one beyond another, and came out at night
to feed on the leaves of fresh reeds, at first consuming
a tolerable quantity, then less by degrees till towards
the end of the month, when their feeding had entirely
ceased ; each stem was now stopped up by a diaphragm
or plug of pale whity-brown silk, spun across a little
within each end ; at the same time I became aware of
one larva having fastened two stems together that had
lain side by side among the leaves, and it had cleverly
utilised the situation by loosening a portion of the old
sheathing leaf from one of the stems, and after creep-
ing beneath this had, by means of silk threads, spun
it firmly on both stems as the covering and protection
of a sufficiently commodious puparium between them.
On the 2nd of October, when about to place them
in a cage for the winter, I noticed a larva much con-
tracted in length, and fast approaching the pupal
change, lying loose amongst the leaves ; beneath these
at the bottom I presently found one had already
become a pupa, and was lying there naked and unat-
The two last mentioned, as well as those spun up
in the stems, all disclosed fine and perfect specimens
of the insect in this present month of June ; the first
was bred on the 5th, and the last on the 15th. By
means of gentle forcing Mr. Fletcher succeeded in
producing the moth as early as the 1st of April, and
afterwards quite naturally and freely, rather in advance
A first view of the larva is very suggestive of an
immature Leucania, more, perhaps, of straminea than
VOL. iv. 3
34 ME LIANA PLAMMBA.
of any other species with which I am acquainted,
though not in its general colouring, as it differs con-
siderably from that species in having a much dingier
appearance, matching fairly well some of the old reed
stems ; moreover, on a close inspection it is seen to
have an extra fine line on either side, in addition to
the usual arrangement of fine lines alternating with
stripes that are observed on a true Leucania.
The full-grown larva of flammea was one inch two
lines in length, apparently cylindrical, yet somewhat
flattened beneath and slightly tapering at each end,
the skin soft and smooth, the segmental divisions
moderately well defined, and the usual subdividing
fine transverse wrinkles also ; these were more notice-
able at the sides, the anal prolegs rather splayed ; the
ground colour above was greyish-ochreous-brown,
faintly freckled with a darker fine reticulation ; beneath
it was paler, inclining to greyish-drab ; the shining
head delicately reticulated with darker grey-brown,
the plate on the second segment a trifle darker than
the ground of the back, and slightly glistening, tra-
versed by the dorsal and subdorsal lines ; the dorsal
line was pale and very thin, but well defined throughout
its course by running between two fine lines of dark
grey-brown, which rather conspicuously relieve it ; a
little above the subdorsal region the ground was broken
by a stoutish paler line ; then after an interval, or what
might be termed a stripe of the ground colour, was
the thin subdorsal line of a paler tint, closely followed
by two other similar lines though more sinuous in
character, these three being equidistant ; thence midway
towards the spiracular region was a stout pale line ; the
spiracular stripe, like the belly, was of a pale, some-
what greyish-drab tint, well defined with an edging
line both above and below of still paler tint ; the black
dots of the trapezoidals were so minute as almost to
escape notice, but the single black dots of the row
along the side were larger, as also the row of two
spots in line with the spiracles, which were whitish,
MELIANA ELAMMEA. 35
tenderly outlined with black ; beneath were other very
minute black dots ; the prolegs of the same tint as the
belly, with dark brown hooks.
The pupa was 1\ lines in length, of a slender, rather
cylindrical figure, the head rounded above and pro-
duced a little obtusely beneath, the thorax rather the
stoutest part, otherwise the pupa was nearly of equal
substance throughout ; the wing-covers of moderate
length wrapped close to the body, the moveable rings
of the abdomen deeply cut, each with an anterior
margin of punctate roughness on the back ; the last
two rings tapered to the anal tip, which was furnished
with two very minute thorny points and curly-topped
bristles ; its colour, at first light brown, soon became
reddish-brown, and in twenty-four hours the darkest
mahogany-brown, later to blackish-brown, the surface
After all the insects were bred, an examination of
the interior of the stems showed one piece of four and
a half inches long, having a knot at one-third of the
length, and in this shorter division one puparium and
a pupa skin, with its tail near the knot; on the other
side of the knot in the longer division two pupa skins,
one beyond the other, lying so that the tails of all
three pointed towards the knot ; a diaphragm of silk
mixed with gnawed particles from the lining membrane
of the stem was at either end of each puparium, which
in length varied from nine to eleven lines, and com-
fortably held the shrivelled-up larva skin ; the dia-
phragm in front of the middle occupant had been
doubled in thickness, and probably this insect had to
wait for its escape until the puparium in front was
freed. Two other stems, about two and a half inches
in length, contained two pupa skins in each, with their
tails towards each other, three shorter pieces of stem
had in each one pupa skin ; another stem three inches
long was like all the others in being well lined with silk ;
it held a single diaphragm, but was otherwise empty.
(W. B., 27, 6, 83 ; E.M.M., XX, p. 63, 1883.)
36 NONAGRIA FULVA.
Plate LX, fig. 4.
In the Manual of British Butterflies and Moths
fulva is said to be the commonest of the small species
of Nonagria, and therein is given from Treitschke a
brief description of the larva ; yet it appears that in this
country no one ever found the larva until Mr. John
Sang, of Darlington, while in quest of another species
of larva, found this one, and meeting again with it in
the following summer, proved its identity by breeding
the insect, as recorded by him in the Entomologist's
Monthly Magazine, vol. xvi, p. 110.
Most obligingly redeeming his promise made to me
on that occasion, Mr. Sang has this season again
sought successfully for the larva of fulva, and kindly
sent me for study — first, a very young example on the
19th of June ; secondly, on the 9th of July, four fine
larvae approaching maturity, thus affording an intense
gratification in figuring this long-desired object.
The habit of the larva is to mine downward within
the inner white lower part of the triquetrous flower-
stem of Gar ex paludosa, a few inches more or less
above the root while young, and nearer the root when
full-grown. It must be admitted that no external
trace of its presence can be seen, for though a slight
blackish discoloration does really exist, yet this is so
completely masked by the close investing leaves as not
to be detected without very strict examination.
When the first little larva arrived I saw it was laid
up waiting to moult, and not liking to disturb it then,
made no further search for another doubtful smaller
larva reported to be in the stem, and this eventually
proved to be a Coleopteron of carnivorous propensity,
to which fulva became a prey while in its helpless con-
From the four larvna of fulva more matured I took
NONAGKIA JFOLVA. 37
away, to figure and describe, the first pupa, which
subsequently died from mismanagement during my
absence ; however, I had the satisfaction of breeding
two fine moths on the 18th and 24th of August, and at
this last date, while inspecting the plant for removal, I
found the fourth, still a larva, though in the stage of
The very young larva was smooth and glossy, of a
creamy-whitish colour with a very distinct greenish
dorsal vessel showing through the skin ; at the stage
more advanced it had deeper colouring and decided
brownish stripes, as I learnt from Mr. Sang.
When nearly or quite full-grown the larva measured
from seven- eighths to about an inch in length ; seen
sideways it tapered very much anteriorly and very
little behind, but when viewed from above on the
back it appeared to taper only and very abruptly from
the front of the third segment to the remarkably small
flattened and taper head, the rest of the body being of
uniform moderate stoutness, though very slightly taper-
ing near the hinder segment ; all the segmental divi-
sions were rather deep, and the subdividing wrinkles
were deep on the third and fourth segments, slighter
and more numerous on the others, and the skin much
dimpled along the sides.
It was of a pallid flesh-colour ground, having a
deeper dirty flesh-coloured internal vessel sliding to
and fro within the third, fourth, and fifth segments ;
the head glossy, light brown, the mouth darker brown,
and ocelli black ; the plate on the second segment was
pale brown with rather darker front margin ; the
dorsal stripe pale yellowish flesh-colour, very softly
defined between two broadish stripes of faint pinkish
grey-brown, followed below by another broad stripe of
the pallid flesh-coloured ground, and this again by a
broad stripe of pinkish grey-brown, through which
one could perceive the tracheal thread of dark grey
whereon the black spiracles were situated ; the rather
rough anal plate was light brown, and there was also
38 NONAGRIA FULVA.
a narrow plate on the front part of the anal segment ;
the dusky-brown tubercular dots were most minute, as
usual with internal feeders they were largest on the
twelfth segment, and were there just perceptible (by
the aid of a strong lens) each bearing a short bristle ;
the ventral surface was pale flesh-colour, the anterior
legs light brown, the whole skin shining.
When about to pupate all the stripes disappeared,
and the skin became of a porcelain-white, strongly con-
trasted with the black spiracles.
The pupa was of a slender figure, measuring five-
eighths of an inch in length, very uniform in substance
throughout ; the thorax rather short and convexly
rounded ; the head sloping forward was prolonged with
a slight tendency to a beak, though rounded off at the
very tip ; the wing-covers short in proportion to the
length of the body, from the moveable segments of the
body below them being longer than usual; the last
three tapered a little, ending in a short blunt thorny
projection ; the colour was light brownish-ocbreous
with a faintly darker dorsal stripe, the anal projection
dark brown, and the whole surface very glossy. (W. B.,
10, 9, 80; E.M.M, XVII, 114, 1880.)
Plate LX, fig. 5.
My best thanks are due to Mr. James Batty, of
Sheffield, who took a long journey during inclement
weather that he might search for the larva of this
species, comparatively new to our lists ; and it may be
supposed how much I rejoiced at the success of his ex-
pedition, when on the 16th of May last I had the
pleasure of receiving from him a consignment of grow-
ing plants of Elymus arenarius containing several full-
Of course I am not able to give any account of their
NONAGRIA ELYMI. 39
earlier proceedings, but at the date above mentioned
they were found feeding in that portion of the plants
just above the root, where the blades of the grass
spring upwards together, overlapping each other for
about six inches or so, before they begin to diverge or
fall apart, and assume the glaucous hue above the sur-
face of the sand in which they grow. Nor when the
larvae were full-fed did they change their abode, but
spun around them a very slight, though tolerably firm
cocoon, with gna wings of their food and particles of
" frass," between two blades. The lower end of the
cocoon, which was rather pointed, was sometimes
mixed with grains of sand, the whole structure in
shape being fusiform and about one inch and a quarter
in length. Several moths emerged on the 4th of July,
at 10 p.m., and made a short flight in my room as
soon as their wings were dry, — one on the 8th emerged
at midnight, and was ready for flight in a quarter of an
The full-grown larva was from 1 to If inches in
length, not very stout, cylindrical, and uniform in size
except at the second segment, which tapered a little
anteriorly, the head being still smaller and sometimes
retracted into it ; the anal segment also tapered off to
a rounded tip, in size about equal to the head. Its
skin was plump and smooth, the segmental divisions
very moderately incised, and the subdivisions delicately
defined, the sides dimpled ; the head and plate behind
it, the anterior legs, the anal plate, and the spots were
all very shining, the rest of the body without much
polish ; it was of a pale flesh-colour, the pulsating
dorsal vessel being of a little deeper flesh tint; on
each side of this dorsal stripe one could just discern,
though very faintly, four transverse bars of a rather
deeper tint of the ground colour on each segment, the
broadest being in front ; the spiracles were black, and
along their region the colouring was paler, more of a
whitish- yellow, as though the interior of opaque white-
ness showed through the flesh-coloured skin ; the head
40 NONAGRIA ELYMI.
was reddish-brown, blackish-brown about the mouth ;
the plate on the second segment pale yellowish-brown,
two pairs of pale, oblong, yellow-brown spots were on
the front division of the thirteenth segment, the anal
flap covered with a plate of the same colour, having
behind a fringe of fine brown bristles ; the tubercular
dots of the back, and their excessively short bristles,
were so very small as to be invisible without a powerful
lens ; the anterior legs were pale brown, the prolegs
tipped with dark brown.
The pupa varied from five-eighths to three-quarters
of an inch in length ; it was rather slender in form,
smooth and shining, and of a light brown colour.
(W. B., 11, 7, 71; E.M.M., VIII, 68, 1871.)
Plate LXI, fig. 1.
On the 30th June, 1870, several larvae of this species
were forwarded to me by the Hon. Thomas de Grey,
who very kindly sent me some of a number he had
taken in the Norfolk fens, that I might not only figure
the larva and pupa, bat also breed the imago ; unfortu-
nately, however, whilst he had the good luck to breed
four imagos on July 27th, all my larvae were infested
with dipterous parasites, so that I did not see the
pupa, nor have I since been able to obtain more
The larvae were inhabiting pieces of the stems of
Arundo phragmites, which had evidently been cut from
the upper portions of the reeds, as they were perfectly
fresh and green, varying in diameter from a quarter to
three-eighths of an inch, and about fourteen to sixteen
inches in length, and more or less sheathed with green
leaves. The sign of a stem being tenanted by this
larva was a small circular hole about a line in dia-
meter, situated about five inches above the joint of the
NONAGRIA NEURICA. 41
sheathing leaf ; the stems which I cut open for the
purpose of examining the larva had, I found, been
mined to the extent of at least twelve inches.
The larva of neurica, when full-grown, was one and
a half inches in length, remarkably slender, cylindrical,
and of uniform size, excepting that the first two and
the last two segments tapered a little; the lobes of the
head well defined on the crown ; the anal extremity a
little flattened above, and rounded in outline ; all the
legs well developed, the anal prolegs extending beyond
the anal tip and slightly divergent, so that the hinder
segments were brought close to the surface on which
it might happen to be ; by contrast the ventral prolegs
appeared rather long. The segmental divisions and
subdivisions not very strongly defined ; the skin soft,
smooth, of a waxen texture, flesh-coloured, sometimes
inclining to pinkish above, with paler flesh-colour
below; the head reddish-brown, and very shining;
mouth dusky-brown ; a shining plate on the front of
the second segment, of similar flesh-colour to the rest
of the body ; another polished plate on the anal flap of
greyish-brown, and sometimes margined behind with
darker brown ; the dorsal pulsating vessel could just
be seen a little paler than the other parts of the back,
with a darker patch or two in its course sometimes
visible ; a delicate thread-like paler line was visible
along the spiracles, which were small, of deeper flesh-
colour, finely edged with black; the tubercular dots
were smaller, of a darker flesh-colour, or brownish,
and polished in texture, each with a very fine hair ;
the anterior legs of the same colour as the body, the
ventral and anal prolegs rather more transparent and
shining, tipped with rather darker hooks. (W. B., 31,
12, 73; E.M.M., X, 275, 1874)
42 NONAGRIA GEMINIPUNCTA.
Plate LXI, fig. 2.
I am happy to acknowledge my obligation to Mr.
Howard Vaughan for my acquaintance with this
fen-haunting species. I had hoped to obtain more
information about its earlier stages, but after waiting
since 1870 I have thought it best to publish what I
know, so few fen collectors seeming to care about
Two pieces of Arundo phragmites were sent to me
on June 21st by Mr. Vaughan, each containing a larva
of this species. The reeds appeared to have been cut
rather low down towards the base, as they were not
green and bore no fresh leaf, but were of a pale buff
tint, somewhat like cane in texture, though on some
parts there were remains of old dried leaf cuticle of a
whity-brown or pale brownish-grey tint; the pieces
had been cut with a knot left at either end ; the length
between the knots inhabited by a larva measured
about four and three-eighths to four and a half inches,
the diameter three-eighths of an inch ; the sign of a
tenant consisted of two orifices plugged from within ;
the upper hole by which the imago escaped was five-
sixteenths of an inch from the knot, and the oblong
hole itself a quarter of an inch in length in a perpen-
dicular direction, and its breadth a little more than
one-eighth of an inch, spun over with grey silk, be-
hind which were particles of pith adhering;* the
lower hole was not quite in a line with that above,
though both holes could be seen at once ; its distance
from the lower knot half an inch, its length nearly a
quarter of an inch ; the outline of the orifice was
oblique and irregular, it being, in fact, composed of
* Mr. Vaughan's impression is that the larva of geminipuncta does
not quite cut through the reed stem, but leaves a thin film of the
cuticle over the upper orifice as a protection, which sometimes, from a
cause unknown, is wanting. — W. B.
NONAGRIA GEMINIPUNCTA. 43
two perforations, the smallest, below, having an ex-
cavated channel under a small piece of the reed cuticle,
which led to the larger perforation ; this hole was
stopped with grey silk from within, and altogether
appeared less conspicuous than the other above de-
One of the larves, which was extracted from its
stem for the purpose of being figured, died on the
25th of June ; the other was only looked at, and, the
split in the reed which had been made for that purpose
being carefully bound up again, it went safely through
its changes, and appeared as a moth on July 23rd.
The full-grown larva was of the usual Noctua form,
one and one-eighth of an inch in length, moderately
but not very stout, tapered a little just at each end,
cylindrical, all the legs well developed. It was of a
deepish flesh-colour, the skin without much gloss, of
a wax- like texture in appearance ; the face and the
lobes of the head were dark brown and shining, be-
tween them on the crown the skin was pale flesh-
colour ; the shining plate on the second segment was
of rather a deeper flesh tint, and dorsally divided by a
line of paler ; the plate on the anal flap was of a shi-
ning pale brownish tint and semi-transparent; the
dorsal vessel just visible as a stripe of a tint of flesh-
colour barely darker than the ground; two parallel
lines of faint whitish flesh-colour ran rather inter-
ruptedly along the spiracular region, dimly suggestive
of the branchial apparatus beneath the skin ; the oval
spiracles were dark grey outlined with black ; the
warty tubercular spots were shining, of a pale brown
colour, each furnished with a very fine hair ; the
anterior legs spotted with pale brown ; the ventral and
anal prolegs greyish, tipped with darkish brown.
The pupa, judging from the empty skin, seemed to
be lying free in the interior of tbe reed stem, head
uppermost; its length a little more than seven-
eighths of an inch, rather slender, stoutest about the
thorax, the wing-cases short in comparison with the
44 NONAGRIA GEMIN1PUNCTA.
length of the abdomen, which had its segments well
divided, and was tapered off gradually to the tip ;
the pupa skin rather smooth, but with little polish
excepting in the abdominal divisions ; its colour a
dark purplish-brown on the thorax and wing-covers,
not quite so dark on the abdomen.
The interior of the reed stem in which the pupa lay
was smooth, and of an opaque, deep, sooty-brown
colour, but without any lining of silk. (W. B., 27, 12,
73; E.M.M., X, 230, 1874.)
Plate LXI, fig. 3.
I have to express my thanks to Mr. Sydney Webb
for his kindness in not only supplying me with this
larva, but also for details of its habits, which, by ob-
servation, 1 have been able to verify completely, for
the purpose of the following description undertaken
at his request.
From the end of July to about the middle of August
these larvae, in various stages of growth, may be found
within the lower compacted parts of the leaves of Iris
pseudacorus ; sometimes two in one plant, but more
frequently only one, where it will have the tender
young central leaf in the very heart of the plant to
feed on. It often migrates, however, not only from
the leaves of one plant to another, but sometimes
enters the culm or seeding stem, where, after feeding
on the central pith down almost to the root, it retires
to attack another plant, and when about half grown
it frequently acquires a taste for Sparganium ramosum,
inhabiting therein the basal part of the trigonous leaf ;
or sometimes it enters the stem of Typha angustifolia,
though in whichever plant it happens to be when full
fed, there it remains in a perpendicular position, and
changes to a pupa.
When a larva gnaws a hole in a fresh plant of Iris,
NONAGRIA SPARGANII. 45
and enters therein, it throws out to some distance
from the hole a quantity of pale " frass " during the
first day or two, according to the size of the larva,
but afterwards allows much to accumulate within the
mine, where, turning to a darker colour, this often
shows through the leaves when they are seen against
the light ; but when the stem is entered the larva
mines downwards, and ejects all " frass " from the
mine, which throughout its length is of a diameter
little more than that of the larva itself. There, a little
below the entrance, the larva gnaws out a narrow and
deep channel horizontally in the circumferent pith
near to the outer cuticle, and another similar channel
near the bottom of the mine.
In order to observe the natural habits of the larvae
it was necessary to have a number of the plants, grow-
ing in pots with plenty of water, in the open air for
them ; but at length, when too late, I found my con-
fidence had been misplaced in allowing the larvae too
complete freedom, for it resulted eventually in the
escape of all but three. Notwithstanding this mishap,
I was lucky enough to have one turn to a pupa on
August 11th, and another on the 15th; the other larva
in captivity was supplied continually with fresh-cut
pieces of Iris standing in water, and fed well to the
end of the month, but afterwards wandered about, re-
fusing to make up for pupation, until it died, the very
day on which the first pupa disclosed a fine example
of the moth, at 4.35 p.m., September 10th.
The young larva, when no more than three-quarters
of an inch in length, was remarkably slender, very
translucent and tender-looking, of a pale watery
greenish tint, with pale brownish head, and plate on
the second and anal segments, having on the body
four fine longitudinal stripes of light olive-brownish
or greenish, the spaces between them being slightly
paler than the pale belly. This design continued to
be developed with an increase of colour and distinct-
ness in proportion to growth ; the substance of the
46 NONAGRIA SPARGANII.
larva, when it was about an inch and a quarter to an
inch and a half long, was considerable, though still
slender; the stripes stronger, brighter, and fuller
green, yet somewhat of a transparent nature, for when
folds of skin occurred at the segmental divisions, as
they did when the larva was not stretched to its full
extent, the stripes on the folds appeared darker, and
the pale interspaces paler.
The full-grown larva when extended was about one
and seven-eighths to two inches long, and very slender,
with all the legs fairly well developed, very cylindrical
and uniform in substance throughout the body ; the
head was of a full roundish form, broadest in front,
glossy and of a pale brown colour, with still paler
papillae, the mouth darker brown and the ocelli black ;
the plate on the second segment and that on the anal
flap were also pale brown and glossy ; the ground
colour of the back and sides was light semi-transparent
yellowish-green, that of the belly rather paler; the
stripes, of a brighter and deeper green, were situated
one on each side of the back and one below on
each side close to the spiracles, the width of the
stripes being nearly equal to the spaces between them ;
the dorsal space was faintly of a deeper greenish,
showing more or less the pulsating vessel ; the spiracles,
narrowly ovate, were light reddish outlined with black ;
the minute tubercular dusky dots were set within the
green stripes, and though lightly ringed with the paler
ground colour were inconspicuous, the legs furnished
with brown hooks.
When nearly full-fed it became shorter and stouter,
growing more and more translucent as the stripes be-
came fainter, the dorsal vessel plainly pulsating, and
delicate ramifications of the tracheal system appearing
through the skin.
The pupa was about seven-eighths of an inch in
length, moderately stout and nearly uniform in sub-
stance throughout, being much of a cylindrical shape,
though the upper parts of the thorax and short wing-
N0NAGRIA SPARGANII. 47
covers swelled out a trifle more than the rest ; the
head had a beak, or rather pointed frontal projection,
and the longish abdomen sloped off beneath the end
of the last segment to form an obtuse dorsal ridge
with granulated surface, and having two minute blunt
thorny projections wide apart, and a few minute
bristles between them. The colour, at first pale
whitish-green, changed gradually to brown, and in
four days the head, thorax, and wing-covers became
darkish mahogany-brown, the abdomen bright pale
ochreous, and it remained so about twenty-three days,
wben a further change to a dark purplish red came
uniformly over the entire surface, lasting for four
days, and then the perfect insect came forth ; thus the
pupa state lasted about a month. (W. B., 13, 9, 79;
E.M.M., XVI, 99, 1879.)
Plate LXI, fig. 4.
Larva elongate, brownish-ochreous ; head reddish-
brown, a shining plate of the same hue on the second
segment ; two fine dusky lines run down the centre of
the back to the posterior segment, which is dark brown.
There are two pale ochreous stripes along the sides,
and below them are placed the black spiracles ; belly
and prolegs paler ; the anterior legs whitish, tipped
with dark brown.
This larva feeds on the pith, within the stem, of
Tyjpha latifolia (reed-mace), is full-fed in August, and
about the end of the month changes within its abode
to a long dark brown pupa, the tail of which is
attached to the upper portion of the excavation, the
head thus hanging downwards, and being one inch and
a half from the hole in the outer rind, through which
the moth emerges in September. (W. B., Zoologist,
1865, p. 9513, where it is quoted from a more ephemeral
magazine, Young England.)
48 B.YDRMC1A NICTITANS.
Plate LXII, fig. 2.
My first acquaintance with the larva was in August,
1862, when Mr. Hydes, of Sheffield, sent me six full-
grown examples, reported to have fed on some kind of
grass ; but as I could not then obtain any more precise
knowledge of their habits, I contented myself with a
figure from one of them, and that figure soon proved
very serviceable in protecting me from an error, when
a flower-head of Iris pseudacorus, with a larva of
nictitans placed in it, was sent to me as that of Apamea
fibrosa — a larva which in all the subsequent years has
not yet been forthcoming !
However, sixteen years later, by a mere chance I
was able to improve my acquaintance with nictitans,
for on the 7th June, 1878, I happened to pick up a
small stone that rested on a very little tuft of Poa
maritima in gravelly soil, near a salt-water course, and
found I had torn away with the stone a silken covering
from a very young Noctua larva, apparently unknown
to me, which I brought home as a prize to be ca.ref ully
tended, watched, and figured. It soon moulted, and
my interest in it increasing, I again visited the spot
in about a week, when I found three rather larger
examples, and again two more of them on the 20th
June, while getting fresh tufts of the food-plant ; and
in the same way subsequently two others. The larvse,
when found, varied in length from a quarter of an inch
to an inch, and it was only when approaching their
last moult that I could suspect what species they were,
though when they were nearly full grown my previous
suspicion ripened into certainty of their identity,
which in August following was confirmed when I bred
the eight moths, comprising the usual sexual varieties
of colouring, from the 4th to the 20th of the month.
The habit of this larva is to feed on the bleached
HYDRiECIA MCTITANS. 49
portions of the grass close to the soil, and to spin for
itself there a case of whitish silk, closely and firmly
invested with the food- plant, which forms at once a
snug dwelling and protection, and in most instances
the shelter afforded by a stone was utilized, even
within a few inches of salt water. It rather surprised
me to find this species in such a littoral habitat, never
having met with it before, though I had known the
moth taken at light in a grassy place bordering a wood
four miles away inland, and understood that it occurred
commonly on open moors and other similar localities
in many parts of the kingdom.
The young larva, when a quarter of an inch to three-
eighths in length, is of ivory whiteness striped longi-
tudinally with purplish-crimson ; the head white, with
black ocelli and dark brown mouth. After a moult in
about five days it assumes a little more colour, when
the head is pale whity-brown, as are also the neck
and tail-plates, each plate having two pairs of minute
blackish-brown dots. The ground colour of the body
is a faint greenish-drab, which shows transversely at
the segmental divisions and in the wrinkles, as well as
in the broadish dorsal stripe, the subdorsal and lateral
stripes, and the whole of the belly. The alternating
dark stripes are now of crimson-brown, broadest along
the back, of which they mark the boundary ; the two
below on the side are narrower and follow the sub-
dorsal and lateral ones, the spiracles occurring at the
bottom of the lowest.
On attaining nearly the length of an inch its stoutish
form is noticeably stoutest at the third and fourth
segments. The darker colouring of the back and side
stripes is now changed to pinkish-grey, and that of the
pale stripes to a light, rather greenish flesh-tint ; the
shining head is of a warm flesh-colour and dark brown-
ish at the mouth ; the glossy neck- plate is light yellow-
ish-brown, rather inclining to orange, thinly outlined
with blackish-brown, but thicker at the front margin,
where it is wavy within ; the anal plate is of the same
VOL. IV. 4
50 HYDfiuECIA NICTJLTANS.
colour and similarly margined. The blackish-brown
tubercular dots are very small along the back as far
as the eleventh segment, then rather larger on the
twelfth and front of the thirteenth. The oval black
spiracles at the bottom of the lower grey side stripe
are accompanied with blackish-brown spots, peculiarly
characteristic, viz. one in front and one above of ordi-
nary size, and a very large one behind the spiracle, and
in corresponding position on the third, fourth, and
twelfth segments this is even larger still and some-
what trilobed in shape; two other rows of single
spots, smaller and paler, occur below.
When full grown the larva is about an inch and a
quarter in length, rather broadest on the third and
fourth segments, tapering thence a little to the head,
also in a very slight degree to the anal segment, which
is rounded oft behind. The characteristic head, plates,
and spots remain as before, but the previous contrast
of colours between the lighter side stripes and darker
back is now greatly reduced, and the light broadish
dorsal stripe also from its softened edges, and showing
faintly within a slightly deeper, greyish, pulsating
On entering the earth the larva encloses itself in an
earthen cocoon of weak cohesion. The pupa varies
from five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch in length,
and is of stoutish proportion, of the usual Noctua
form, the abdomen convexly tapering from the move-
able segments to the anal tip, which ends with two very
fine projecting points ; on the back of four of the middle
abdominal rings, just at the beginning of each, is a
narrow transverse band of punctate roughness, while
all the other parts are smooth and shining, and the
colour is of deep mahogany-brown. (W. B., 7, 1, 82 ;
E.M.M. XVIII, 195, February, 1882.)
HYDR^CIA MICACEA. 51
Plate LXII, fig. 4.
On the 22nd of June, 1869, I received from the
Hon. T. de Grey a larva which proved to be that of
this species, and, more recently, the following note :
11 1 first observed the larva by pulling up, on the
14th May, a sickly-looking plant of Equisetam arvense.
It appeared to be feeding on the root and stem below
the surface of the ground, but when placed in a bottle
with a supply of the food-plant, it immediately entered
a stem, and fed upon the inner substance, hollowing it
completely out, and ejecting the frass at the lower end.
" The larva moved readily from one piece into ano-
ther, and throve upon this food till May 28th, when I
supplied it with Equisetum fluviatile, on which it fed
well till June 21st,"
On arrival this larva was an inch and one-sixteenth
in length, rather slender, cylindrical, and tapering just
a little at the posterior extremity, its head as wide as
the second segment, the upper lip and mandibles
large, the transverse folds and segmental divisions
rather deeply cut.
The colour of the back and sides down to the spira-
cles was a rather deep purplish red-brown, without
gloss, and a little paler on the thoracic segments and
at the divisions ; the sides below the spiracles, the
belly, and the legs were paler, and of a dingy flesh-
colour; the head ochreous-brown, and mandibles
blackish-brown ; a polished pale ochreous-brown semi-
circular plate on the second segment, rather broadly
margined in front with blackish-brown ; a small shining
pale ochreous plate on the anal tip, having a terminal
border of very small dark brown warts ; the other
tubercular warts arranged in the situation usual in
stem feeders, also blackish-brown in colour, and each
emitting a fine hair ; the spiracles black ; the prolegs
tipped with brown.
52 HYDR.EC1A MICACEA.
At the beginning of July the larva had attained an
inch and three-eighths in length, and had become
moderately stout in proportion, having meanwhile
gradually grown paler on the back, and by the 10th of
the month the upper and under surfaces were both
alike of a deep smoky dull flesh-colour, the dorsal pul-
sating vessel just visible as a faintly darker stripe of
the same ; the warts, however, still dark brown, and the
head and plates as before described.
Hitherto the larva had fed well on both species of
Equisetum, but it now ceased eating, and began exca-
vating a hole in the earth at the side of its pot, in
which, by the 15th, it had changed to a light ochreous-
brown pupa, but without forming any cocoon !
The pupa was three-quarters of an inch long, mode-
rately stout, presenting no unusual peculiarity of form,
but ending in an anal spike, which was inserted in the
earth, and on the last two segments were a few fine
short bristles pointing backwards. The moth emerged
on the 14th of August.
Soon after the above larva came into my possession
I identified it with my figure of one sent to me by Mr.
Steele, of Congleton, on the 10th July, 1866 (which
proved to be infested with Microg aster alvearius), and
also of some others in May, 1867, then quite small, and
all of them feeding in the roots of dock, but which I un-
fortunately failed to rear to the imago state. (W. B.,
10, 69; E.M.M. VI, 164, 12, 69.)
Plate LXIII, fig. 1.
On the 10th of October, 1882, I received a very
young Noctuid larva from the Rev. John Hellins,
which he had beaten out from a bank. It looked to
me at this time to be a very young example of Lujperina
testacea, soon to moult, and its finely wrinkled skin and
XYLOPHASIA LITHOXYLEA. 53
pale flesh-colour led to this belief. Its length was
then about 4 lines.
On the 13th it moulted, and was at once seen to be
really a young Xylophasia by the plates and wart-like
spots, now first distinctly to be seen, though at that
time they and the head were whitish, the body having
a light tint of pinkish-brown ; and on looking through
my most powerful lens I could already discern, between
the trapezoidal spots on the back, the six little whitish
marks that to me had hitherto betokened polyodon, so
that I began to feel confident I had before me the larva
of that species.
By the 23rd of October it had grown, and was of
stouter build, but still of the same colour, with the
spots still paler than the pale pinkish-brown ground ;
it had made its hollow nest, big as a sparrow's egg,
under a little tuft of growing Poa annua, and I could
see where it came out occasionally to eat some of the
whitish parts of the grass, just above the roots on the
surface of the earth, the nest being formed close under
the roots which overspread the hollow forming the
domed roof ; and all the fibres retained the shape of
the construction by a layer of silk spun beneath them,
which formed the lining of the roof of the nest.
By the 17th November the larva had grown; the
ground colour was still a pinkish-drab, but the head
and plates were of rather a deeper tint of the same,
and it was curious that at this date I could find no
trace of the little whitish marks on the back which
had in the middle of October arrested my attention.
The nest was now as big as a thrush's egg, which
obliged me to supply it with a fresh tuft of the grass.
On the 19th January, 1883, the larva, which had the
head, plates, and spots unchanged up to the end of
December, now showed them black. From this time
it remained hybernating until the mild days near the
end of February, when it waked up and fed spar-
ingly, and again became torpid all through the cold
month of March, and on the 1st of April showed signs
54 XYLOPHASIA LITHOXYLEA.
of an approaching moult, and it moulted during the
night of the 5th — 6th.
By the 21st April it had grown considerably, and
was an inch and a half long, the skin highly lustrous,
of a light grey, having a faint tinge of greenish ; the
head, plates, and spots all black and glossy.
Towards the middle of May it retired into the earth,
and soon turned to a pupa. The moth, a female
lithoxylea, came forth in the evening of June 28th,
The pupa skin had a rather narrower and louger
spike than is found with its congener polyodon, which
has it broader, a trifle shorter, and tapering, when
compared together. Otherwise they are very similar,
but polyodon is the stoutest.
A larva similar to the foregoing was picked up while
crawling briskly along a footpath through a corn-field
in the evening of May 27th, 1883, and it retired to
earth in the course of that night, and on the 9th July
the moth, a fine female lithoxylea, came out, of rather
a greenish-grey colour. This larva, whose head, plates,
and spots were black like the foregoing, had the
ground colour of its skin quite a decided green, whereby
I felt almost sure it was lithoxylea. (W. B., Note Book
[The following notes on " Comparative descriptions
of the larvae, &c, of Xylophasia lithoxylea and poly-
odon " were published in 1875, having been penned
by Mr. Buckler in November, 1874, many years before
the foregoing description was written. — H. T. S.]
From the great similarity that exists between the
larvae of these two species, Duponchel, who had bred
both insects from larvae in which he thought he could
see no difference, was induced to consider them to be
but varieties of one species, and I confess that for a
long time after certain experiments made by myself,
which seemed to end in a similar way, I felt strongly
inclined to take the same view, and nothing but the
XYLOPHASIA LITHOXYLEA. 55
firm and continued assurance to the contrary of my
friend Mr. Doubled ay encouraged me to persevere, in
the hope of eventually distinguishing the one larva
from the other.
Foiled year after year in my attempts to obtain
eggs from the moths imprisoned for that purpose, and
failing also to obtain them from friends, who could
naturally, perhaps, feel but little interest in these in-
sects of such common occurrence, I had to content
myself with those single examples of the larvae that
by chance occurred to myself, or were found and for-
warded to me by friends at distant intervals of time,
so that my investigation has unavoidably been of a
somewhat desultory nature, and, in addition, has often
been retarded, just when success seemed almost as-
sured, by the vexatious circumstance of the disclosure
of ichneumons in the place of moths. This last circum-
stance also gave rise in my mind to doubts as to
whether certain appearances, which I had figured and
noted, might not have been due entirely to the pre-
sence of parasites within the larva, and I felt compelled
to wait on for further observation of healthy larvse.
Thanks to the kindness of the Eev. H. Williams, of
Croxton, my desire has been fulfilled, and my work in
this difficult matter accomplished during the season
now closing, and in the hope of interesting some of
the readers of this magazine I venture to submit my
notes of both species of larvse for publication ; at the
same time acknowledging the kindness of Mr. W.
Machin, who at the end of March, 1871, sent me two
larvse found by him at the roots of grass, and by so
doing, as the event has proved, helped me to both
species at once.
Both species of larvse are alike in figure and struc-
ture, having tough, smooth, shining skins, and still
more lustrous dark heads, plates, and spots. They
are irritable in disposition, and this circumstance,
added to the lustre of their surface, renders very close
inspection necessary to arrive at their identification.
56 XYLOPHASIA LITHOXYLEA.
They are cylindrical, and tapering a little from the
third segment to the head, and again from the eleventh
to the anal extremity ; the third and fourth segments
subdivided by transverse wrinkles, the others plump,
well defined, and puckered a little along the sides ; the
usual dots in both species assume the character of
tubercular warts, each furnished with a hair. Like the
head and plates they are black or blackish-brown in
colour, and in shape and arrangement are found as
follows : the central transverse series on the back of
the third and fourth segments are oblong, and are pre-
ceded and followed by a fusiform transverse spot, dor-
sally divided by a thin line of the ground colour, which
is also seen to divide the anterior plate, while on the
sides of these two segments are grouped several more
or less roundish spots. On the back of each of the
other segments (save the last) are four large black
spots, the trapezoidals ; these have the first pairs
round, the second pairs roundish-ovate. Along the
sides of each of these segments are grouped five spots
in this way ; the spiracle is surrounded by four of them,
viz. a large one above and below, one behind much
smaller, and the smallest, a mere dot, in front ; the
fifth spot is the lowest, and where the ventral prolegs
occur is borne on them; the thirteenth segment has
spots in front and a plate behind ; the ventral and
anal prolegs are broadly barred near their tips, which
are fringed with hooks of the same colour as the head
Lithoxylea, full grown, is about an inch and a half
in length, and stout in proportion ; its brownish-grey
ground colour has a slight fawn tinge in it, and is but
little paler below the spiracular region, though the belly
has a faint tinge of greenish. The pulsating dorsal
vessel is of a deeper tint than the back ; the upper lip
darkish fawn-colour, the antennal papillae a little paler ;
the anterior legs fawn-colour, and often tipped with
blackish ; spiracles black.
Polyodon, when full grown, varies in length from
XYLOPHASIA LITHOXYLEA. 57
an inch and a half to an inch and six-eighths, and is
often very stout. Its colour is either grey, brownish-
grey, or lurid deep reddish-grey, varying in intensity,
and there is a variety banded across the middle of
each segment with darker grey than the ground colour ;
these bands are not abruptly defined, but melt away
to the paler ground colour. Another variety occurs
in which the back is dark purplish-grey, changing
gently along the spiracular region to a dingy brownish-
red, which is on all the lower parts of the body, while
the head is dingy purplish-red ; but, whatever the
general colouring, the pulsating darker dorsal vessel
shows in a subdued manner through the skin. Within
the area of the trapezoidal spots on the bach there a,re on
each segment, from the fourth to the twelfth, six pale
grey marks ; namely, a pair of transverse short curved
and pointed streaks, ivith their broadish bases separated
only by a mere line on the middle of the back, and rather
close behind them four round dots, which range in a
transverse row between the hinder pair of the tubercular
spots. Along the spiracular region the paler colouring
of the lower part of the body is generally well con-
trasted with that above ; the spiracles black, some-
times grey outlined with black, the upper lip greyish-
brown ; anterior legs the same colour, though often
spotted and tipped with black : the black spots on the
sides of the third and fourth segments occasionally
vary both in number and shape. (W. B., 28, 11, 74;
E.M.M. XI, 208, 2, 75.)
Plate LXIII, fig. 2.
A larva received May 13th, 1875, from Mr. Forbes,
of Edinburgh, found by him under stones on Arthur's
Seat — supposed to be Mamestra furva. It was eating
close to the roots of various grasses, and looked ex-
tremely like a purplish-brown polyodon. By May 20th
58 XYLOPHASIA POLYODON.
it had grown in size, and was much paler, especially
below the line of spiracles, looking even more like
polyodon than at first.
This larva continued to grow and became gradually
paler and greyer, more like polyodon ; the pale streaks
between the trapezoidal spots became visible, and the
pale dots more transversely elongate than usual.
On June 8th I found it had changed to a pupa.
The moth X. polyodon emerged July 9th. (W. B., Note
Book II, 191.)
See also under the preceding species the compara-
tive descriptions of the larvae of Xylophasia lithoxylea
and polyodon , pp. 54 — 57.
Plate LXIII, fig. 3.
On the 19th of September, 1876, I received from
Mr. W. R. Jeffrey a small Noctua larva, which he had
found in a folded brown leaf of Stachys sylvatica, and
which had moulted a day or two before the 18th. It
was only three- eighths of an inch long when it came, and
was of a middle tint of brown, a little paler below the
spiracular region, and was remarkable from having on
either side of the second segment on the light brown
shining plate a conspicuous and very dark brown
The larva refused to eat Stachys sylvatica and all
other kinds of food until grass was supplied, and then
it began to feed, and on the 27th it moulted and again
took to grass, seeming to prefer Dactylis glomerata to
either Air a c&spitosa or PhaJaris arnndinacea , and by
October 14th it had become a trifle over three-quarters
of an inch long, and of moderate stoutness ; the head
brown and shining, plate on the second segment brown,
finely divided by a very thin dorsal and broader sub-
dorsal lines of a pale yellowish ; below these last the
XYLOPHASIA HEPATICA. 59
plate is filled in with very dark blackish-brown, still
conspicuous as at first ; the ground colour is of a dark-
ish purple grey-brown, much and finely freckled with
darker; through this runs the paler ochreous-brown
dorsal line ; a faint subdorsal stripe of unfreckled
ground colour, edged with coarser freckles, can just be
discerned ; the tubercular spots blackish-brown ; above
each spiracle is a larger tubercular spot than any of
the others ; the spiracular region and belly reddish-
ochreous freckled, but paler than the back ; the spira-
cles of the same colour, finely outlined with blackish ;
the shining plate on the anal segment has paler dorsal
and subdorsal lines.
At the beginning of November it moulted again, and
now the plate on the second segment was all black
alike, with the exception only of the pale lines ; the
larva now, in all its details, showed itself to be unmis-
takably X. hejpatica, though of a darker purplish-brown
and less grey than those full-fed examples of this
species which I have myself found in the spring.
This larva continued to wake up and feed at inter-
vals up to the 1st of January, 1877, when I noticed
its length was somewhat less than before, though still
alive ; but on the 7th I found it dead. (W. B., Note
Book III, 154.)
Plate LXIIT, fig. 4.
I am indebted to Mr. Batty for two healthy larva3 of
this species. They feed on coarse grasses and a
species of wood-rush. Their bodies are uniformly
cylindrical and slender. The head and plate on the
second segment are of a translucent greenish tint, and
there is a black mark on each side of the mouth.
Ground colour of the body olive-green above ; on the
back a fine thread-like line of yellowish or pale grey-
ish, enclosed by two others of dark grey, which form
60 XYLOPHASIA SCOLOPAC1NA.
the dorsal line and run through a series of slate- coloured
elliptic marks. The subdorsal is a narrow line of slate-
colour, beginning at the third, and after the fifth seg-
ment merging into a broad lateral stripe (which com-
mences on the second segment) of dark slaty-grey,
most intense at its lower edge ; just above which, on
each segment, is a large blackish shining tubercle,
furnished with a bristle ; the ordinary dorsal tubercu-
lar spots small, with minute hairs. The spiracular
region bright sulphur-yellow, and the belly greenish.
( W. B., 3, 6, 64 ; "E.M.M. I, 50, 8, 64)
Plate LXIII, fig. 6.
For the ability to publish some account of the
preparatory stages of this rare species I have to thank
Dr. Wood (of Tarrington), whose eyes were keen
enough to detect a moth resting near the ground on
an old gate-post, looking, for all the world, like a
splinter of the wood on which it was sitting. My friend
had previously found others in similar situations, but
this was the first female, and, luckily, it proved fertile.
The moth was found on June 4th, 1877, and she
deposited her eggs in clusters on the sides of a chip
box during the night of June 5th. In the cluster sent
to me on the 9th I found them lying three deep, but
cannot say if in nature they would have been laid so
thickly ; possibly they might, for some species I know
— such as Tseniocampa miniosa and gracilis — lay all
their eggs in one dense heap.
The larvae were hatched on June 14th and 15th, and
ate about half the cluster of empty egg-shells before
settling down on the food supplied, viz. Lotus cornicu-
latus. The first moult took place on June 20th and
21st, the second on the 27th and 28th, the third about
July 5 th, the fourth from the 12th to 15th of July,
XYLOMYGES CONSP1CILLARIS. 61
and the last was accomplished by the most advanced
larva on July 26th, followed by others at intervals.
After this some deaths occurred among my stock,
and in addition to the food previously given, viz. L.
corniculatus and occasionally Polygonum aviculare, I
now gave them Lotus "major and Euonymus eurojodeus,
and afterwards I learnt from Dr. Wood that I should
have supplied them chiefly with the flowers of L. corni-
culatus, which he found his larvae preferred to the
leaves. The first two full-fed burrowed into the earth
on August 5th, and were followed not long afterwards
by some others, though two individuals chose to re-
main up to the last on the surface, where they pupated
without making any attempt to cover themselves,
whilst those which had entered the earth formed
therein a thick and tough cocoon of earthy particles,
looking as though they had been kneaded up with
fluid, the result being of the texture of a worm-cast,
the interior very smooth. The moths appeared on
April 17th, 18th, 19th, and 22nd, 1878.
The egg is of a regular round shape, convex above
and depressed on the under surface, the shell orna-
mented with numerous fine ribs and reticulations.
When first laid the colour is pale bluish-white, by the
fourth day changed to a light pinkish-grey, with a
zone round the middle and a blotch on the top of light
brown, which, deepening day by day, makes the pale
ground still paler by contrast, until the ninth day,
when the whole egg becomes uniformly of the hue of
the bloom on a cluster of purple grapes, and in a few
hours the larva is hatched.
The newly hatched larva has a very pale and trans-
parent, pinkish-grey body, and a pale brown head, the
dorsal vessel showing blackish-brown through some of
the segments; but after food has been taken and growth
commenced the skin shows glossy, light yellowish
watery green, with minute black dots. After the first
moult the colour changes to a more opaque bluish-
green, still with the black dots, and with a paler
62 XYLOMYGES CONSPIC1LLARIS.
widish dorsal and narrower subdorsal lines ; the head
of a yellower green, sprinkled with black atoms.
After the second moult the same tint of green is re-
tained, with the dorsal and subdorsal lines as before,
but now a still paler spiracular stripe appears, and in
this stage — when the larva is about three-eighths of
an inch long — it is much like the young larva of
Tdeniocampa gothica, except that it is more slender, and
the pale lines are not so white or so sharply defined.
After the third moult the colours are much as before,
but now the spiracular stripe is decidedly greenish -
yellow or ochreous-yellow, and the tubercular black
dots are imperfectly ringed with whitish-yellow. After
the fourth moult the general colouring, though deep
and of sober richness for a time, gradually grows paler,
and three varieties could be noticed, brownish-green,
ochreous-green, and one or two light brown ; the
markings as before.
When the larva is about an inch long the last moult
occurs, and the size and colouring become that now to
be described as belonging to the full-grown larva. The
length is from an inch and a half to an inch and five-
eighths, the figure tolerably stout, cylindrical, yet
tapering very little at either extremity, the eleventh
and twelfth segments being rather the thickest, and
all the divisions very slightly denned ; the skin soft and
smooth. The colour of the glistening head is pale
pinkish-drab, with a blackish-brown streak down the
front of each lobe, a finer streak at the side, and deli-
cate reticulations on the other parts. The ground
colour of the back and sides isochreous-greenish brown,
very much, but finely, freckled with brownish-grey ;
the second segment is thickly freckled with dark grey-
brown, and edged on the front margin with very dark
grey, through which, rather distinctly, pass the fine
thread-like dorsal and subdorsal lines, a trifle paler
than the ground ; but on the rest of the body they are
of the ground colour, merely relieved with outlines of
grey-brown, and can only just be traced in their course,
XYLOMYGES CONSPICILLARIS. 63
more or less interrupted, along a series of double
dorsal diamond-shapes of close darkish grey freckling,
within a larger diamond outline of freckles on the
back of each segment. Each of the small tubercular
spots, which are ranged in threes on either side of the
dorsal region, is of cream- colour or pale drab, bearing
a dot of blackish-grey on its upper margin ; lower on
the side is a single similar tubercular spot, below which
the grey freckles form a dark contrasting edge to the
paler, widish spiracular stripe of reddish-drab or
flesh-colour, most delicately freckled with whitish.
The spiracles are pale flesh-colour, finely outlined with
black ; the side below them, with the legs, is of similar
freckled ground colour, but rather paler than the back,
and the belly is unfreckled.
The pupa is nearly five-eighths of an inch in length
and about a quarter of an inch in diameter, of some-
what dumpy shape ; the head and thorax thick and
rounded, the three flexible rings of the abdomen well
cut at the divisions, their anterior edges having punc-
tate roughness, convexly tapered towards the rather
blunt tip, which is furnished with four diverging
shortish spines, the outer pair much the shortest.
The colour is dark purplish-brown, and the surface
shining. (W. B., 30, 4, 78; E.M.M. XV, 17, 6,
Plate LXIV, fig. 1.
On October 5th, 1867, Mr. Thomas Terry, of Babbi-
combe, gave Mr. Hellins some eggs of this species,
laid by a captured ? about three weeks previously.
On the 16th October the larvae began hatching;
they fed on Poa annua and other smooth grasses and
chickweed, and being kept in a warm place (out of
doors) did not seem to hybernate, but fed slowly
through the winter, and by the end of January, 1868,
64 APOROPHYLA AUSTRALIS.
were half an inch in length. From this time they
fed and grew more rapidly till April, and all of them
had gone to earth by the middle of that month. The
moths appeared September 22nd to October 10th.
The egg is full and round in shape, with about
twenty ribs, of which a third meet at the top, and the
rest stop short in the angles formed by their junction,
all connected by transverse reticulations ; the ground
colour pale yellow, but splashed with purplish-pink.
The larvas when hatched are greenish, with a black-
ish tinge on the back of the front segments ; the head
brown ; the underside paler than the back ; the usual
dots distinct, each furnished with a stiff bristle.
After a moult they become smooth, of a full green
colour, with a darker dorsal line and a whitish sub-
spiracular stripe, the folds showing yellow, and so they
continue to near half an inch in length.
When this size has been attained varieties begin to
develop themselves, some remaining wholly green with
double purplish -red dorsal lines, while in others the
subspiracular stripe becomes edged above by a spira-
cular line of purplish-pink.
At the next change the dorsal purplish-red lines
open on the centre of each segment, disclosing a pale
pinkish diamond, and the subdorsal faintly appears now
as a fine double pinkish line.
The next moult produces a further development
quite characteristic of the adult. The larva is now an
inch long ; in some the green of the back is of a
yellower tint, and the sides a bright rose-pink; in
others a brilliant grass-green, and sides purplish -pink.
At this stage the dorsal line is flesh-colour edged with
pink or red, and on the front of each segment is a pair
of short black marks placed obliquely, so that but for
the dorsal line they would form a A with its apex point-
ing forwards ; the subdorsal line is also marked with
black at the beginning of each segment ; the subspira-
cular stripe yellowish.
The full-grown larva is one of the handsomest and
APOROPRYLA AUSTRALIS. 65
most gaily coloured of the Noctux, is one inch and five-
eighths in length, rather stout and cylindrical, slightly
tapered towards the anal tip.
The ground colour is now a very brilliant yellow-
green, or, in some individuals, greenish-yellow; the
head green, freckled with reddish ; a red unpolished
semicircular plate on the back of the second segment.
On the back of each of the other segments is a red
diamond, the front part of which for about a third of
its length is black, through which runs the flesh-
coloured or pale pinkish dorsal line, edged with red,
thus cutting what would be a black triangle into two
black wedges pointing forwards. In the centre and
sometimes in the hinder portions of the red diamonds
the dorsal line often becomes suffused with their colour.
The subdorsal line black, but only at the beginning of
each segment. The spiracles white, placed in semi-
circles of black, and the space between them and the
subdorsal line thickly freckled and streaked with deep
red, appearing like a broad band of red along the side ;
the subspiracular stripe very pale primrose-yellow, its
lower edge softened a little into the ground colour, and
followed below by a blotch of red or pinkish on each
segment ; the prolegs tipped with the same colour ; the
ventral surface pale yellowish-green.
Yar. 1. The ground colour a rather deep reddish-
pink on the back and sides. The freckled side band
and dorsal diamonds of darker purplish-red, with all the
other details as in the preceding.
Yar. 2. Ground colour of the whole surface olive-
green, but appearing on the back only at the beginning
of each segment as a transverse narrow band, in which
can be seen the pinkish- white dorsal line and the black
wedges, though much shortened ; the rest of each seg-
ment is covered by a broad, transverse, dark purplish-
brown band extending to the spiracular region and
hiding all other marks, each white spiracle in a large
black blotch connected with a narrower blackish-
brown transverse band on the ventral surface of each
VOL. iv. 5
66 APOROPHYLA AUSTRALIS.
segment ; the head, entire second and half the third
segment, anal tip, and legs, also a faint spiracular line
visible only on the anterior segments, are all of the
olive-green ground colour.
The pupa is subterranean (but not enclosed in a hard
cocoon) ; its shape is very cylindrical, tolerably even in
bulk throughout, but rather thicker in the middle, very
smooth, the tail ending with a small spike ; its colour
a rich brown, and polished. (W. B., E.M.M. VI, 13,
Plate LXVI, fig. 5.
In the course of July, 1866, Mr. Batty kindly sent me
some young larvae, said to be this species, which he had
reared from eggs on Polygonum aviculare, and to which
food they adhered entirely although I supplied them
with Silene inflata and other plants ; they were full fed
by the 10th of August, and to the last retained their
colours and markings. The following year sped on,
but without the appearance of any imago, and when
their pot was emptied of contents no pupa was found,
but only some few shrivelled-up larval remains.
This larva was cylindrical, and tapered very little at
the posterior extremity, and was altogether very uni-
form both in size and tint ; the whole of the back and
sides to the spiracles being of a greenish-drab, or
else of a reddish-drab colour, delicately marbled with
darker tints of the same ; while along the spiracles
there was a faint whitish streak, and a very sinuous
interrupted dark streak running through it. The spi-
racles were very small, of the ground colour, outlined
with darker drab ; a slightly paler dorsal line, outlined
with darker, could just be seen, chiefly on the anterior
segments ; and amongst the fine marbling could also
be discerned a fine and rather sinuous subdorsal line ;
another, similar but rather more continuous, ran between
NEURIA SAPONARLE. 67
this and the spiracular region; the belly and legs of
the ground colour, but paler and without markings ; the
head and plate on the second segment light brownish ;
the anterior legs drab colour, the prolegs tipped with
brownish hooks. (W. B., Note Book II, 179.)
Plate LXIV, fig. 2.
[I find it needful to begin my notice of the larva of
this species with the following " Note on the Larvao of
Heliophobus popularis, Charseas graminis, and Luperina
cespitis" published by Mr. Buckler more than twenty
years ago — in February, 1869, in the Entomologist's
Monthly Magazine, v, 225.— H. T. S.]
Through the kindness of correspondents I have
been supplied in different years with the eggs of all
these three species, and have reared the larvse from
them to full growth ; and as I became acquainted with
one species after another, I could not help being struck
with the great similarity of appearance presented by
all three when full grown.
In fact, from not being at the first prepared for this
similarity among them, I found it necessary to rear
each species a second time in order to make sure of
the distinctive markings of each ; but this having been
done, and several figures having been carefully de-
lineated, I feel I can now offer a few remarks which
may be of use in helping others to separate them.
The early history of each is similar ; the straw-
coloured eggs are laid in autumn, and undergo one or
two changes of colour — the last not long before the
larvae are hatched — some time in spring, the exact
date varying according to the character of the season.
They all feed on grass, showing no decided prefer-
ence beyond that of choosing the smooth and hard
grasses rather than hairy and woolly species ; they
68 HELIOPHOBUS POPULARIS.
feed up in summer, retire underground, and make neat
oval chambers for their retreat during pupation ; and
the moths appear at the latter end of summer or be-
ginning of autumn.
When young the larvae all show a greenish hue,
with whitish lines — graminis and popularis beiug of a
paler, more olive tint; while cespitis is of a bright, clear,
full green, with the lines also of a purer white than in
the other species.
I have noticed that popularis, when about half grown,
shows a very beautiful opalescent pinkish gleam of
colouring about the ventral legs and belly, which I
have not observed in the other two. By degrees, in
all of them the green becomes darkened with brown,
and a metallic or bronzy lustre makes its appearance,
until at last the full dress is assumed, which I now
proceed to describe.
In shape all are similar ; the head is full and rounded,
the body stout and cylindrical, thickest in the middle,
and tapering towards each extremity ; when disturbed
they do not curl up, but bend their head and tail to-
gether on one side.
But in size, as might be expected from the moths,
they differ ; thus popularis, when full grown, measures
fully If inches in length, cespitis 1-|, and graminis If ;
and their bulk is in proportion to their length.
Next as to colour and ornamentation ; all three are
much alike in hue, and all have five conspicuous stripes,
arranged as dorsal, subdorsal, and subspiracular.
The colour of the head is brown ; and that of the
back, as far as the spiracles, is a deep brown-greenish
or smoky brown, bronzy and very shining ; a black (or
at least darker than the ground colour) semicircular
plate on the second segment, on which commence the
dorsal and subdorsal stripes, in colour pale pinkish-
grey, greyish-ochreous, or pale brownish, widening a
little in the stoutest part of the body, and gradually
narrowing again till they converge and meet at the
tip of the anal flap, which is covered with another
HELIOPHOBUS POPULAMS. 69
black plate ; these stripes are edged with black, and
freckled with grey or brown along their middle. The
spiracles are black, and immediately beneath them
comes the subspiracnlar pale stripe, edged and freckled
like those already described.
The legs and prolegs are greyish-green or brown,
the latter ringed with darker brown, or with a brown
spot above their extremities; the ventral surface vary-
ing in tint, but in all shining and semi-translucent.
Owing to the brilliancy of their skin, the play of
light on the polished surface makes a close scrutiny in-
dispensable to detect all the distinguishing marks of
each species ; still such are to be found, especially in
the region of the subdorsal and subspiracular stripes.
Popularis, then, has a rather pale narrow line, edged
with blackish, running along midway in the space above
mentioned, all the pale stripes being uninterrupted.
Perhaps, too, the bronzy gloss of the back is warmer
in this species ; while the belly, though paler than the
back, is more dusky than in the others.
Graminis has also a pale line running between the
spiracles and the subdorsal stripe. In this species
the segmental folds offer a good character, being
smoother and of a different tint from the back — in
fact, catching the eye as narrow transverse bands ; the
whole skin also is much wrinkled transversely; and
there are transverse pale streaks in the space alluded
to between the subdorsal and subspiracular stripes,
viz. three above the pale line, and two below it, on
each segment. The subspiracular stripe is wider than
in the other species (and the belly seems to have rather
a pale golden-brown gloss).
Gespitis has, in the space between the subdorsal and
subspiracular stripes, three ragged and irregular, rather
paler, longitudinal lines, a little meandering in character,
and edged here and there with dark er, and being more
or less obscure ; and the belly and legs in this species
are decidedly tinted with green. (W. B., E.M.M. V,
225, 2, 69.) *
70 CHAR^AS GRAMINIS.
Plate LXIV, fig. 4.
The description of this larva must be culled from
the note under the preceding species, p. 69.
Plate LXV, fig. 1.
On the 3rd of June, 1882, I received from Mr.
Benjamin Arthur Bower, of Langley, Eltham Road,
Lee, twenty-nine eggs of this species on chip in groups
of four or five, and some singly, others loose, laid by a
moth taken by himself at Box Hill, at rest on a tree
trunk on the 22nd of May.
Their hatching seemed imminent on their arrival,
as they had all changed colour ; when first laid Mr.
Bower said the eggs were of a light drab, and changed
in a few days to purplish-brown ; they were laid on
the side and bottom of a chip box, in an irregular
mass, in some parts four deep. The egg is round,
convex above and flattened beneath, and is numerously
and finely ribbed and reticulated. Some were of a light
drab colour, others darker drab, and most were of a
leaden grey, all of them showing a dark grey ring at
the apex and a thicker dark grey ring round the base ;
these on the darkest eggs approach to blackness, and
all the ribs glisten with a pearly lustre.
The eggs began to hatch at 8.30 in the evening of
the day of their arrival, and continued during the
night, only one being unhatched the next morning.
The young larvse were confined with Dactylis glome-
rata, Brachypodium sylvaticum, and Poa annua at once,
and in the morning of the fourth all showed signs of
being eaten (the last named the most) by small trans-
parent patches appearing of eroded or denuded cuticle
PACHETRA LEUCOPH^A. 71
when held against the light, besides minute grains of
frass ; they were very active and vigorous little larvae,
suspending themselves with fine threads and eager for
The head, when a few hours old, was brown, marked
with black ; the body was drab at intervals, with smoky
dark grey-brown on the anterior segments and some
of the others, bearing black shining tubercles, each
with a black hair. On the 8th of June, when barely
five days old, they had grown decidedly, and their
colouring was now green, like that of the Poa on which
they had chiefly fed ; the head much marked with
darkish brown on the lobes, and the brown plate on
the second segment decidedly divided in the dorsal re-
gion ; dots and hairs, as before, blackish.
On the 14th, nineteen survivors (from accidents and
deaths) moulted the first time ; by the 17th they were
green, with darker green subdorsal lines, and a lateral
line closely followed by a whitish spiracular stripe; head
and plate dotted with black, smaller tubercular dots
black ; by the 25th many had ceased skeletonising the
leaves, and had eaten the entire thickness, while some
had spared the midrib; by the 26th most had moulted the
second time, and now the head was shining pale greenish,
with four rather large black dots in front of the lobes ;
the ground colour of the back between the subdorsal
lines was of a rather deeper greyish-green than that on
the sides, but on the sides was a darker green line close
to the broad spiracular stripe of whitish-green; the thin
dorsal line and the very thin subdorsal lines were of
a similar whitish-green, but fainter ; the dark dots
of the body very small ; segmental divisions whitish-
At this time I put out on growing grass most of
those which had survived, keeping only three in closer
confinement for observation ; these on the 30th of
June were quite of a slaty-greenish colour, the pale
stripes and lines a little more conspicuous.
July 5th, these had moulted the third time, and were
72 PACHETRA LEUCOPH2EA.
six lines long, marked and coloured as before, and by
the 10th were laying up for the next moult, and by
the 14th these had moulted the fourth time. The dorsal
line then became buff-yellow and quite distinct; on
either side of it on each segment was a conspicuous
black dot, and another black dot on the side of each
segment. Black freckles now appeared just above the
spiracular stripe, also a black streak on each lobe in
the front of the head; the general colouring was
brown or brownish-drab, and the ground finely
freckled with dark brown atoms ; by the 26th some of
them were growing lighter coloured. I observed on
changing their pot of grass one was laid up for moult-
ing ; on the 28th it had moulted the fifth time, and was
then put back with the others ; on the 5th of August
another had. laid up to moult, and soon after got suc-
cessfully over the operation, and similarly three others
rather later ; another was waiting to moult on the 1 5th,
and the latest got over this fifth moult on the 24th.
After this fifth moult the larva was at first quite pale
ochreous, but in a few days gradually gained more
colour and growth, though this last proceeded slowly
enough, as at this time they were not quite an inch long.
On the 17th September one moulted the sixth time,
another a day or two later, and the whole number of
eight larvse, one after another, had got over their sixth
moult by the 30th. They were now prettier larvae,
much of the colour of Turkey rhubarb, two or three
in handsome coats of " feuille de mort " velvet ; they
were torpid and sleepy, yet they continued to feed a
little in the evenings. By the 14th October they had
attained the length of one inch and three lines, and
were rather thick in proportion, though their skin
seemed loose, and felt soft without firmness. On the
29th October I put them out in a pot of the growing
grass to take their chance, fearing, however, they
would all die, as one had already died on the 10th of
that month, from the effects of a white frost, which
led me to suppose they were too advanced to stand
PACHETRA LETJCOPHJIA. 73
the winter, as they avoided entering the earth. Pre-
vious to putting all out I tried three first, and within
a few hours picked up one that had got out of the pot,
afterwards another. On the 12th November one was
picked up from the floor, dead and dried up. On the
26th November three more were found dead and
shrivelled amongst the grass. (W. B., Note Book
Plate LXV, fig. 3.
A larva from the Rev. H. Williams, on May 10th,
1872, about five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch
in length, very thick in proportion, plump and taper-
ing just at each end, and very shining ; it was dug up
beneath Silene inflata and grass. In colour it was
pinkish-grey ; rather sluggish in habit, feeding at the
roots of grasses. It moulted the second week in June,
and was then rather less pink and more of a fleshy-
grey tint, otherwise the same as before. It grew very
slowly, continuing to feed at the roots and just above
the roots of tufts of Poa annua, which were supplied
to it from time to time.
By July 19th it had become full grown, when its
figure was depicted and the following description taken :
— Length one inch and three-eighths ; very plump, the
divisions tolerably incised, tapering behind at the last
three segments, and just a little at the first two.
The pupa three-quarters of an inch long, of moderate
bulk, very uniform in size, tapering but little till near
the tip, which is furnished with two slightly divergent
fine points curved downwards, of a light brown colour.
The moth appeared on the 4th September. (W. B.,
Note Book I, 182.)
On the 30th June, 1879, I received a larva of this
species from Mr. J. Gardner. It appeared to be full
grown, measuring about an inch and one-eighth in
74 LUPERINA TESTACEA.
length, rather thick and stumpy in repose, cylindrical,
yet tapering a little at the two hinder segments, and a
little from the third segment to the head, which is of
a full and rounded form, though the lobes are well de-
fined by the skin between them in a point on the crown ;
the legs are all well beneath the body, as often occurs
with larvae of burrowing habits ; but it is totally unlike
any other larva I as yet know ; it has no dots or spots
whence the minute hairs proceed, though with a strong
lens the hairs are seen to spring from the situations
where such dots would be in most Noctua larvas. The
anal plate is peculiar ; it is rounded off behind rather
abruptly, and is rather concave onits surface — aremark-
able character in contrast with the convex surfaces of
the other segments, all of which on the back are trans-
versely divided with deep wrinkles into prominent
ridges, most pronounced on the twelfth and front por-
tion of the thirteenth segment ; the rather concave anal
plate divided by two deep semicircular wrinkles into
three ridges ; on most of the segments each front half
on the back is by comparison almost smooth, though,
in fact, every part of the skin there, and particularly on
the ridges, is, by the aid of a lens, seen to be scored with
minute wrinkles; in short, its external anatomy is marked
by very deep channels between the muscles on a very
finely wrinkled skin, which glistens rather than shines.
In colour the glossy head is light brownish-yellow, the
plate behind it rather paler and shining, the body
generally a deepish flesh- colour, often of a livid tint
of faint greyish flesh-colour, the ridges of the back
and sides invariably with more colour than in the
deep hollow wrinkles, which are paler and purer flesh-
colour, smooth without glistening, and at the seg-
mental divisions also ; the colour on the back of the
two hinder segments grows darker by degrees, espe-
cially on the ridges, culminating in darkish brown on
the front division of the anal plate. The mouth dark
brown. The spiracles deep flesh-colour, strongly out-
lined with black.
LUPERINA TESTAOEA. 75
The moth of the true testaceous colouring emerged
on the 28th of August, one fore-wing shorter than the
other. (W. B., Note Book III, 270.)
Plate LXV, fig. 4.
In September, 1864, I received a number of eggs
from Mr. Terry, of St. Mary Church ; they were all
loose, but probably, in a state of freedom, the moth
would attach them to grass, &c.
The eggs at first are pale straw-colour, soon turning
pale purplish-brown, and again becoming dingy grey a
long time before the larra appear. This is singular, for
the last change of colour usually precedes the hatching
of the larva but a few hours, or days at the outside.
One half of my eggs I kept in a pill-box, the other
half I dropped on a bit of wall-moss, Tortula ruralis,
which was planted with some tufts of various common
grasses in a flower-pot. Here they were exposed to
every change of weather — snow, rain, or frost — all
through the winter ; till on April 4th, which was a
warm day, I put the flower-pot under a sunny wall,
and thus prevailed on the larvae to come forth. The
eggs in the pill-box shrivelled up, every one.
The larva at first is a little dingy fellow, but after a
moult or two puts on the gayest dress worn in all its
existence, becoming of a clear full green, with white
dorsal, subdorsal, and broader spiracular lines. As it
grows bigger the green becomes tinged with olive, and
at the last moult the colour of the back is of an olive-
brown, shining with a metallic lustre (reminding one
of bronzy morocco leather) ; and the lines, which are
clearly defined, are of a dirty freckled white. The
figure is stoutest in the middle, tapering towards either
end ; the head horny, brown in colour ; the plates
on segments 2 and 13 nearly black ; the belly of a pale
76 LUPEEINA CESPITIS.
When disturbed these larvae had a way of turning
their heads sideways back to their tails, and after
attaining some size hid themselves by day amongst the
grass. About the end of June they began to go
undergound, forming for themselves very neat and
smooth oval chambers, at about half an inch below
the surface, and inclined to it at various angles, some
of them being nearly perpendicular to it, so that the
pupae in them rested nearly upright. The pupa is
reddish-brown, round and full in outline, the blunt
anal spike having two very small fine points projecting
The first moth appeared on the 14th of August, and
the rest soon after. It was not always easy to detect
the newly bred moths, as they hid themselves at the
roots of grass nearly as cleverly as the larvae had done,
but one could always see the clean round holes they
had bored through the earth in emerging from their
cocoons. All sorts of common grasses were eaten by
this brood, but a certain number of them showed a
decided preference for the rough hard Aira cxspitosa.
(J. H., 11, 10, 65 ; B.M.M. II, 211, 2, 66.)
[See also under Heliophobus popularis, p. 69, com-
parative descriptions of that larva, this larva, and the
larva of Char seas graminis.—TI. T. S.]
Plate LXV, fig. 5.
That I am able to offer some account of the hitherto
undescribed larva of this species is due to Mr. Samuel
Stevens, whose kindness in imparting to me for the
purpose all the knowledge he acquired of it when he
discovered the larva some years ago, I have most
thankfully to record.
Although thus instructed, it was, however, in vain
that I hunted for the larva in 1877, through the end
of May, onward to 11th of June, the day on which I
MAMESTRA ABJECTA. 77
chanced to find under a stone, within a neat little
cavity of another stone beneath, embedded in stiff soil,
a fine pupa, which, on the 12th of July following,
produced a remarkably handsome female specimen of
Having so far proved this species to exist on the
south coast, I felt encouraged to resume the search in
1878 in the same locality, where, during the months
of May and June, I found larvae of other species from
time to time, yet not one to satisfy me until the 3rd
of June, but on that day I felt hopeful of having found
abjecta in a young larva adhering to the under side of
a stone, where it had sheltered itself with a partial
covering of green " frass " spun together with silk,
having been also connected with the tuft of grass
whereon the stone had lain.
By assiduously following up this success on all avail-
able opportunities, extending the area of research, and
raising a large number of stones, much to the discom-
fiture of colonies of ants, various beetles, spiders,
crustaceans, and slugs, I was again rewarded by
finding on the 20th of June a full-grown example of
the larva under what proved to be a very lucky stone ;
though on turning it over at first there seemed only a
large black spider in view, which sprang forward in
alarm to a small hole, and as it paused there a moment
on the brink, a small spot of pale colour beneath its
dark body arrested my attention, and this pale spot
proved to be part of the back of the larva, which was
soon safely extracted from its snug quarters between
the matted grass.
After figuring and describing the larva, it was
placed in a pot furnished with some of its native soft,
muddy soil, together with a small tuft of the grass
and a stone, and it soon worked its way beneath. I
subsequently found it had formed for itself a very
slight loose cocoon of silk, with a few particles of soil
adhering, not under the stone, but close under the
grass at the side of the pot, and the moth, a fine,
78 MAMESTRA ABJECTA.
dark greenish-glossed female, emerged on July
The young larva of the 3rd of June lived only a
week, and was barely three-quarters of an inch long,
of stoutish figure ; its head, plates, and small horny
spots of shining red-brown colour, the real ground
colour of the body being a rather shining flesh-colour,
palest and coolest on the thoracic segments, though
not much of this showed on the back and sides, just
merely a little around each spot, and in the transverse
wrinkles when they opened with the movement of
crawling ; the intermediate parts clouded purplish-
brown without gloss, the paler coloured skin more
conspicuous between the head and the plate on the
The full-grown larva measured one and five-eighths
of an inch in length, and was stoutly proportioned,
cylindrical, the segments plump, moderately well
defined, and puckered on the sides with short wrinkles,
the spiracular region forming a puffed ridge along the
eleventh and twelfth. The ventral and anal prolegs
short, thick, and well beneath the body as in the true
Agrotides, more adapted for burrowing than for walk-
ing, though in all other respects of structure besides
its true affinity lay with Xylophasia, very apparent in
the transverse horny ridges and spots on the thoracic
segments, though all the spots were much smaller
than with polyodon, yet they were similar in shape
and arrangement ; the body was of a rather dirty pale
flesh tint, having a faintly darker flesh-coloured dorsal
vessel appearing through the skin ; the head, the an-
terior and anal plates, and the anterior legs of glossy
bright reddish-brown colour ; the horny spots also, but
of a much paler tint, each bearing a fine hair ; the
front margin of the anterior plate, pointed in the
centre and curving away concavely, showed that
whenever the head should be retracted the margin of
the plate would accurately fit against the lobes on the
crown of the head, and protect the soft flexible skin
MAMESTRA ABJECTA. 79
between them, for as in the younger larva, so in the
full-grown one, this interval of skin presented a notice-
able character : a flesh-coloured short dorsal division
appeared on the hinder part of the plate. The spiracles
black ; the ventral and anal prolegs fringed with dark
The pupa ( ? ) measured a trifle more than seven-
eighths of an inch in length, and a little over two-
eighths in thickest diameter, the shape similar to
that of polyoclon, the abdominal tip with a flattish
prolongation terminating with two straight pointed
spines ; the wing-covers, leg and antenna cases rather
roughened, and on the back of the abdomen a narrow
band of punctate roughness lay across the front of
each flexible segment. The colour for some time was
brick-red, but as it matured became purplish-brown,
with the tip pitchy black, having generally little gloss.
As to localities, I am disposed to believe with Mr.
Stevens that wherever its food-plants, Poa maritima,
distans, and Borreri, grow along sea- banks, the margins
of tidal rivers, salterns, muddy creeks, and salt-water
ditches, abjecta may there be found ; but be this as it
may, I am now able to appreciate properly the hard
work Mr. Stevens must have expended in his perse-
vering researches, which were formerly so successful
in the neighbourhood of Grravesend and at other
similar places. (W. B., 30, 4, 79 ; E.M.M. XVI,
19, 6, 79.)
Plate LXYI, fig. 2.
For the long-desired opportunity of studying the
larva of this species I am greatly obliged to Mr.
John Dunsmore, of Paisley, whose unwearied kindness
throughout the winter of 1876^7 in repeatedly hunt-
ing up specimens for me, in spite of adverse weather,
has my warmest thanks ; and I must not omit my
80 MAMESTRA FURVA.
obligations to Mr. Andrew Wilson, of Edinburgh,
who, in 1869, sent me eggs, though at that time, for
want of experience, I failed to retain the larvae in health.
The eggs were sent to me at the end of summer,
and the larvae hatched in September. They were very
active at once, and seemed anxious to hide under the
earth, and presently established themselves at the base
of a tuft of grass, and spun together a little earth,
frass, and some of the grass-roots for protection,
Mr. Dunsmore found the larva? (commencing in the
first week in November, when they were but three-
sixteenths of an inch long) amongst the roots of Poa
trivialis and P. nemoralis, growing from under large
stones which capped a turf wall in a hilly district.
After I received them, finding it necessary to supply
them from time to time with growing food, for they
woke up occasionally from hibernation and ate away
the heart of the grass shoots close to the root, I tried
them with Poa annua, and, to my great convenience,
they took to it quite contentedly. During the winter
their growth was trifling, but as Mr. Dunsmore con-
tinued to send me fresh examples at intervals of time,
which were always smaller than those I had been keep-
ing previously, I drew the conclusion that in the colder
climate of their northern habitat their hibernation was
more complete, and that there during winter they pro-
bably did not quit the smooth, silk-lined, oval nests or
chambers which they constructed — each for itself — by
spinning together the grass roots. After the middle
of May I saw these nests were made less carefully,
being no more than dome-covered hollows, out of
which they came every night and fed, generally, as
before, close to the grass roots, but sometimes on the
panicles of seeds, becoming full fed during the first
half of June; they then turned to pupae, without making
any cocoon whatever, but loose in the peaty soil under
the grass, and between July 1st and 14th I bred six
imagos, all males.
The egg oifurva is small, dome-shaped, ribbed, and
MAMESTRA FURVA. 81
reticulated, of a dirty whitish at first, changing after-
wards to light drab, and again to dark grey, a day or
two before hatching. The newly hatched larva is dirty
whitish, with dark brown head, plates, and minute
dots ; the hairs in the dots visible only with a lens.
In six weeks' or two months' time it is about three-
sixteenths of an inch long, of a light pinkish-brown
colour, the head, plates, and warts of the same colour,
but more shining than the rest of the skin ; and by the
end of December examples vary in length according
to their growth from four- sixteenths to five-sixteenths
of an inch, and again at the end of March from three-
eighths to four-eighths. In April it advances still
slowly, and moulting, becomes rather paler, and grows
by the middle of May to five-eighths of an inch in
length, and after further moulting, towards the end of
the month, its colouring is still paler. It is now dirty
whitish, or pale drab or flesh-colour, the head, plates,
and spots continuing brownish-red or pinkish-brown
as before. Henceforward its growth is more rapid,
and after another moult it attains its full growth, from
the beginning to the middle of June.
The healthy full-grown larva measures one inch and
a quarter in length, and is moderately stout in propor-
tion, nearly uniform in size, except that the first and
last segments are a little smaller; the head full and
rounded, the lobes on the crown well defined, and the
jaws large; the segments plump and distinct at the
divisions, the only very noticeable wrinkles being on
the third and fourth. The general colouring of the
body is a light and rather shining pallid flesh-colour,
almost a light drab on the thoracic segments, melting
gradually thence into a warmer fleshy tint, excepting
on the belly, which is pallid. Down the middle of the
back can just be seen, deep beneath the surface of the
skin, a faint appearance of a pinkish-brown dorsal
vessel, gently pulsating. The head is of a dark brick-
red colour, very glossy, and with a few fine hairs, the
upper lip flesh-colour, the mouth dark brown ; the broad
vol. iv. 6
82 MAMESTRA FURVA.
glossy plate across the second segment is rather brighter
than the head, and is reddish-brown, its front margin
slightly waved and boldly defined with very dark brown,
the semicircular hind margin narrowly outlined with
the same dark brown ; this plate is well relieved from
the head by an interval of the pale skin between them
(generally conspicuous) ; the glossy plate on the anal
flap is also light reddish-brown, strongly outlined with
very dark brown in front, and more narrowly behind ;
the tubercular warty spots are rather small, smallest on
the middle segments of the body, not very shining,
and of reddish-brown colour, each bearing a hair ; their
number and arrangement precisely similar to those of
Xylophasia poly o don and lithoxylea /* the spiracles are
small, oval, and black ; the anterior legs reddish-brown,
the ventral prolegs fringed with dark brown hooks.
The pupa is from six-eighths to seven-eighths of an
inch in length, moderately stout, and of the usual
Noctua figure ; close below the ends of the wing-covers
the abdomen begins gradually to taper, and there the
next two rings are more deeply cut than those towards
the tip, which has a blunt prolongation furnished with
a central pair of straight pointed spines, and farther
apart outside them another pair, thinner, shorter, and
curved a little outwards. The colour of the tip and
spines is black, all the rest a deep and rich red-brown,
the whole surface, with the exception of a narrow
band of punctures across the front of the more pro-
minent abdominal rings, very glossy.
From the preceding account it will be seen at once
that furva, in the appearance and habits of its larva,
is much more of a Xylophasia than a Mamestra, a
resemblance noticed before by Guenee (tome v, p. 198) ;
but I am inclined to think that his description, as well
as that of Freyer, quoted in Stainton's Manual, does
not sufficiently give the points of distinction, which,
in the midst of much general resemblance, satisfac-
torily separate this larva from polyodon (of lateritia,
* See ante, pp. 52 — 58.
MAMESTRA FURVA. 83
the other Xylophasia mentioned by Guenee, I know
nothing) ; and I can suggest an explanation of this
confusion from two circumstances which happened to
myself whilst rearing the larvse, and either of which
might have set me quite wrong had I not taken the
precaution to rear each example separately. I had
been prepared by Mr. Dunsmore to expect ichneu-
moned larvae, presenting an abnormal appearance, and
amongst my stock I found two, in which the head,
plates, and spots were precisely similar in form and
appearance to the same features in the healthy larvae,
so that no doubt could exist of the species, notwith-
standing the size they ultimately attained. One of
them, after moulting on the 14th of April, became by
the 20th nearly an inch and a half long, and very
stout, its skin minutely wrinkled transversely, and of
a dull pink colour. On May 2nd I took a second
figure of it, for it had changed considerably both in
colour and texture of skin, and had grown to be one
inch and three-quarters in length, the skin now tense,
smooth, and very glossy, of a dirty, somewhat flesh-
colour. On the 10th it had invested the bottom of its
domed nest under the grass with grains of earth, and
lay hidden in a complete cocoon, though very soft and
fragile. I opened the cocoon about the middle of
July, and found within a large, circular, rather flat-
tened mass of light fawn-coloured silk, and in the
centre the dark red head-piece of the larva. This 1
had scarcely placed on a table and covered with a glass,
than there issued from it in quick succession a swarm
of Microg aster alvearius, which, perhaps to the number
of one hundred, I hastened to destroy with chloroform.
The other variety was about an inch and a half in
length, of a dark smoky-grey colour above and lurid
reddish beneath ; it was more . than once by night
observed to be at the tops of the grass nibbling at the
seeds. It was figured on the 15th of June and died
three days later, about thirty middle-sized ichneumon
larvae having eaten their way out of its body.
84 MAMESTRA FUKVA.
The other circumstance was this. In the first in-
stalment of little larvae from Mr. Dunsmore was an
individual which, in point of colouring, for some time
presented no particular variation from its companions,
but eventually became noticeable by its outstripping
them in growth, when I began to pay it much atten-
tion, and gradually became aware of well-defined
differences developing themselves each time it moulted,
until at length, as I had begun to expect, the special
characteristics of poly o don appeared to convince me it
was that species. It continued to grow, and by the
month of April it had reached the length of two
inches (longer, in fact, than those I described in 1875),
with a body of proportionate stoutness, and looked
quite a formidable creature ; and to leave no doubt at
all in the matter I bred the moth on the 8th of June.
Now, had I kept all these larvae together, I might,
— selecting the biggest examples for the purpose —
have taken my description from an ichneumoned
specimen or from the polyodon larva, and should thus
have missed the true characteristics of furva ; these
are printed in italics in the foregoing account, and it
is specially to be noted that the hend, plates, and warts
are not black, but reddish-brown. (W. B., 26, 10, 77 ;
EMM. XIV, 182, January, 78.)
On the 17th of August, 1873, I received from Mr.
J. R. Wellman seven eggs of this species laid on a
piece of cork, in two groups, composed of three in
each group and a single one, all adhering to the cork
by a gummy substance. The egg is spherical, but a
little flattened, very finely and delicately ribbed ; of a
pale pinkish-drab colour, and lustrous as a pearl. On
April 1st, 1874, the eggs began to turn darker, of a
APAMEA CONNEXA. 85
slate-colour, by the 4ch were almost black, and on the
5th when put in the sun one of them hatched.
The young larva had a black head and plate on the
second segment ; the body dark purplish-brown,
excepting the three or four hinder segments which
were colourless, the segmental divisions paler. On tho
7th the deep opaque purple- brown colour seemed dis-
posed in transverse bands round the segments. It had
been feeding on the cuticle of a piece of garden striped
grass, but on hunting after it I had the misfortune to
inflict on the larva an injury which proved fatal. None
of the other grasses had been touched.
On the 20th of August, 1874, I received sixteen
eggs of this species from Mr. Wellman, all laid in a
cluster like a bunch of grapes, of the same form, colour,
and texture as above described, some of them perhaps
a little deeper pink. On April 6th, 1875, these eggs
began to turn a little darker, and by the 10th had
become purplish-black in hue, when one larva was
found early in the morning to have hatched. It
answered exactly to the description above noted. I
put it in a bottle with Holcus mollis, Molinia coerulea,
Aira cdespitosa, Luzula sylvatica. Another larva hatched
on the morning of the 11th, and one in the afternoon ;
two more by the morning of the 12th; by this time I
could observe a slight trace of the Holcus mollis having
been nibbled, and that the pale hinder segments of two
or three of the larvae had become dark like the other
segments. Another larva hatched in the afternoon of
the 12th, three on the 13th, two on the 14th, two on
the 15th, one in the evening of the 16th — altogether
On the 19th I sent three larvae to Mr. Hellins, on
the 22nd I placed four larvae on the growing potted
Holcus mollis ; on the 23rd I found the remaining three
larvae on the cut grass in the bottle were dead.
The duration of each life seemed to average ten days,
about the period for a first moult. (W. B., Note
Book II, 38.)
86 APAMEA GEMINA.
Plate LXVII, fig. 2.
On the 28th of March, 1868, my friend Mr.Doubleday
kindly sent me a larva about an inch long, found at
night in Epping Forest, which, unfortunately, soon
after died from ichneumons, and the figure taken of
it remained an enigma until 1872, when its identity
was determined by the appearance of gemina from a
similar larva, found by the Rev. H. Williams, of
Croxton, while searching for larvae of its congener
unanimis under grass sods in a loose and damp soil
on December 12th, 1871 ; although so much smaller
than the one above mentioned, being only three-eighths
of an inch long at that date, yet I saw at once it was
of the same species, possessing the same distinguishing
characters which continued unchanged till its maturity.
Though supplied with plenty of grasses from time
to time it persistently kept itself coiled round and
nestled amongst the soil at the roots, showing no dis-
position to feed until the 27th of February, 1872,
when it came out and moulted on the grass, and then
began to feed on Phalaris arundinacea : having soon
after increased in length to seven-eighths of an inch
it again moulted, and by March 18th reached its full
growth, when I found it would eat Poa annua or
Triticum rep ens quite as well as the ribbon-grass, but
it was not a great eater ; on the 24th it retired to
earth, and the moth, a female, emerged on June 12th,
a dark and handsome variety, the remissa of Haworth.
This larva, when full grown, was one inch and five-
eighths in length, cylindrical, of moderate and almost
uniform stoutness, tapering but little at either end,
the head rounded. In colour it was brownish-grey,
finely striated longitudinally with a darker tint of the
same; the dorsal line yellowish-white, uniform in
width throughout, and bordered with dark grey; the
APAMEA GEMINA. 87
subdorsal stripe brownish-ochreous, but little paler
than the colour of the back ; the spiracular stripe,
characteristic of the genus, and of this species in par-
ticular, was broad, of a light drab colour with paler
edges, and along its middle were situated the oval
spiracles, which were yellowish-drab delicately outlined
with black ; the belly and all the legs brownish-grey,
similar to the colour of the back ; the shining head of
the same colour, freckled with darker ; the black plate
on the second segment highly polished, as is also that
on the anal flap, on both the dorsal and subdorsal lines
appeared almost white ; the tubercular warty dots
blackish, each bearing a grey-brown hair.
The pupa was little more than five-eighths of an
inch in length, of the usual Noctua shape, rather stout
in proportion to its length, ending in two minute
points at the anal tip ; it was of a dark mahogany-
brown colour, and very glossy, enclosed a very brittle
earthen cocoon one inch long by five-eighths wide,
lined with a slightly wrought tracery of silk threads.
(W. B., 9, 3, 74; E.M.M., X, 275, May, 74.)
Plate LXVII, fig. 3.
On the 1st of March, 1868, I found on grass a larva
unknown to me at the time, which I figured, and on
the 3rd it spun up ; the moth appeared on the 5th of
June following, and proved to be of this species. On
my comparing my figure of this larva with that of
unanimis by Hiibner, the difference between them was
so great as to lead me to suppose mine could not be a
typical representative of the species, and I resolved
to wait till more larvae could be found, either to
prove or disprove the correctness of my supposition
before offering any description for publication. But
I can now say, after having had examples of the larvae
from Norfolk, Devonshire, and Hampshire, which
88 APAMEA UNANIMIS.
differed in no way from the one above mentioned, that
I have no doubt of this, which I am about to describe,
being the typical form of the larva, at least in this
Unfortunately I can say but little of the egg state,
and nothing of the juvenile larva ; for though some
years ago I imprisoned a female moth in a pot with
growing Aira flexuosa covered with leno, the eggs she
deposited were allowed to hatch and the young larvae
to escape during my absence from home ; I had, how-
ever, previously noted that the eggs were of a pale
drab colour, and were all adhering to the blades or
leaves of the fine grass about four or five inches from
Besides Triticum repens and other grasses, the larva
seems partial to a variety of Phalaris arundinacea, the
striped ribbon-grass of gardens. On the approach of
cold weather it seeks a hybernaculum often in the loose
grassy sods at the foot of a tree, particularly affect-
ing decayed willows, and occasionally under the bark,
and sometimes within the tree itself, amongst the rotten
dust. At the end of February or beginning of March
it wakes up, but not to feed again, and after crawling
about for a few nights, finds a suitable place for pu-
pation. Some of the larvae I had in captivity spun
amongst the roots of the grass, and others in loose,
light soil, and the perfect insects came forth from the
27th to the 30th of May, 1871. Before proceeding
with my description I desire to offer my thanks to the
Rev. Henry Williams and to Mr. H. D'Orville, for
their valuable assistance in supplying larvse both in
spring and autumn.
In October the full-grown larva measures from one
and one-eighth to one and a quarter inches in length
when stretched out, but often contracts itself to one
inch; it is cylindrical, of about uniform moderate
stoutness, tapering very slightly just at each end, the
head being a trifle the smallest of the segments, and
the anal segment rounded at the tip. The smooth
APAMEA UNANIMIS. 89
head, and the plate on the second segment are highly
lustrous, and the skin on all the rest of the body is
glossy, but, from being covered with multitudes of
minute wrinkles, it has no very great play of light on
its surface ; there are also three deeper subdividing
transverse wrinkles across each segment. The whole
colouring consists in lighter and darker tints of a red-
dish-brown inclining to ochreous ; the ground colour
of the back and side is not very deep in tint, and is
much like that of some of the Leucanidse ; the dorsal
stripe begins on the deeper brown plate of the second
segment, where it is but a mere line ; on the third and
fourth it grows wider, and thence is of about equal
width to near the anal tip, being very much paler than
the ground, indeed, almost whitish-ochreous ; it is very
finely edged with darker brown, and on each segment
passes through a narrow elliptic mark of darker brown
than the ground colour, composed of freckles. The
subdorsal stripe is of similar width, but is very little
paler than the ground colour, though very well defined
by its having darker edges ; below this, after an inter-
val of the ground colour which terminates in a dark
edging, comes the spiracuiar stripe broader than either
of the others, of about the same depth of tint as the
subdorsal stripe, and defined by a paler edging above
and below; about the middle of this broad stripe is
the row of brown spiracles, each delicately outlined
with almost black, and surrounded with a small pale
halo ; the belly and legs are of a slightly deeper tint
than the spiracuiar stripe, and are faintly freckled with
a still paler tint. The ventral prolegs are all tipped
with deep brown, the anterior legs spotted with brown ;
the usual two pairs of tubercular dots on the back of
each segment are deep brown, as are also the pair on
the side situated above and behind each spiracle, each
dot being furnished with a fine brown hair ; the head
is brown, and very dark brown round the mouth. In
March, after hybernation, the larva is generally of
darker hue, the whole colouring being of deeper brown,
90 APAMEA UNANIMIS.
with scarcely any trace of ochreous in its composition,
but this is the only change, as all its details remain
relatively the same.
The cocoon is made of pale grey glassy-looking silk,
compact and smooth of texture, firmly adherent to the
substances around it, broadly oval in form, and little
more than half an inch in length ; the pupa is half an
inch long, of moderate stoutness, smooth, dark red-
dish-brown in colour, and very highly polished. (W.
B., 11, 71 ; E.M.M. VIII, 207, February, 72.)
On the 6th of August, 1882, I received from Lord
Walsingham three young larvse feeding in the con-
volute pointed shoots of leaves of Phalaris arundi-
nacea ; they were about 10 mm. long, with black head
and neck plate and a black anal plate ; the body bluish-
green, with paler delicate cool grey lines, dorsal and
subdorsal and broad spiracular stripe, and the belly
nearly as pale ; the segmental folds of skin of a pale
ochreous-greenish. One of these had prepared to moult,
and had got over the operation before the 10th, and
by the 15th it had grown to be 16 mm. long, of the
true Noctuid form, and the head had become brown,
and the neck less dark brown, with the dorsal and sub-
dorsal lines running through it ; the ground colour of
the body more of a drab-greenish than before ; the
minute dusky dots were visible with the lens. There
was at that time no doubt in my mind that this in-
dividual was Ajpamea unanimis.
On the 9th of August I received from Lord
Walsingham seven more, all like the preceding.
On the 20th the larvse, after moulting, were quite
brown, with brown head and a darker browu streak
on each lobe, the neck plate the same, both shining;
the lines began on the front of this plate, the dorsal
line thin along this plate and afterwards thicker, but
the subdorsal began at its full thickness, and they
were of paler brown than the brown of the ground
colour ; the broad spiracular stripe and the belly were
APAMEA UNANIMIS. 91
more whity-brown ; the length was now 13 mm., and
of much stouter proportions.
By the 3rd of September, after moulting, they
measured from 20 to 22 mm., and were quite brown
and sober in their colouring — the anal plate still the
darkest, and were all full-grown unanimis. By the
9th of October they ceased feeding, though the grass
was supplied till end of the month.
On the 12th of February, 1883, they were found to
be all dead and shrivelled up amongst dried leaves of
the Phalaris kept out of doors.
The larvae on the striped grass from Blubberhouse,
Yorkshire, arrived on the 8th of September, and were
all rather less than half an inch in length, with black
heads and plates and greyish-greenish bodies, marked
with stripes quite similar to the usual unanimis.
They fed well, and retained the black heads up to the
penultimate moult, and also the anal plate quite black,
and these did not change colour till after the last
moult, when they became pale brown. Their growth
was rapid, and they were full grown by the 18th of
October, but fed on until the 23rd, though more
sparingly. The full length was now 1 inch 1 line ; the
head and the plates lightish brown and shining, the jaws
dark brown, papillae pale cream-colour, as was also the
dorsal stripe, the subdorsal not quite so pale, the
ground between them and the spiracular stripe of a
delicate brownish-greenish tint, and with fine grey-
brown dots near and close to the edges ; the spiracular
stripe broad and pale cream-colour, spiracles in the
middle were whitish finely edged with blackish ; belly
and legs rather deeper tinted with greyish-buff; the
skin shining a little, but covered all over with fine
wrinkles except on the plates ; the ventral and anal
prolegs longisb, and well furnished with fine hooks,
that cling well to the grass. On each side of the
dorsal line towards the end of each segment a few
dark grey-brown freckles were aggregated together,
and a dark edge finely outlined the dorsal line. On the
92 APAMEA UNANIMIS.
29th of October the lines had greatly faded, and the
ground had become very much of a flesh-colour, and
they had almost ceased to feed. I found two of them
had snugly ensconced themselves in a leaf of the
striped grass, within a tubular hybernaculum made by
their curling round the upper surface and slightly
spinning the opposite edges together. By the 31st
March, 1881, only one was alive, and that was in a
moribund condition ; the others were all dead, and
turned of a brownish-black colour, and the last sur-
vivor died on the 2nd of April.
In the garden here at Lumley, during August, I
found on the striped grass some larvae, at first quite
small, and very much like the Yorkshire larvae from
Lord Walsingham ; and gathering the grass as food for
the latter, I frequently found I had gathered a larva
with the grass. There must have been a large number
of these larvae on the six large tufts of grass, which
became greatly ravaged by October, when not a leaf
of any freshness would be found entire on either of
the tufts, which towards the end of the month were
melancholy spectacles, every green shoot devoured,
and only the dry, rapidly bleaching leaves left, with
large portions of them much cut away, showing the
previous ravages of the larvao. On the 18th of October
I took a lantern soon after dark, and by its help found
six larvae, one on each tuft. At that time there were
a few green shoots remaining, but they had nearly all
disappeared by the 29th.
When I again looked at the Lumley larvae on the
12th of February they were all dead but two, and those
two had become smaller. (W. B., Note Book IV, 161.)
APAMEA OPHIOGRAMMA. 93
On July 14th, 1878, I received from the Rev. John
Hellins a cluster of about nine eggs of ophiogramma,
which had been sent to him the day before by Mr. B.
A. Bower, of Langley, Eltham Road, Lee. The shape
of the egg is roundish, but rather flattened, much like
a Gouda cheese, but having a depression beneath, the
surface very finely ribbed and reticulated, in colour of
very pale, watery drab tint, and very glistening. On
the 21st they changed colour to a light drab, with a
darker drab spot showing through a part of the shell.
In the morning of the 23rd two eggs hatched, having
become of a pinkish-grey just before ; the next day
three more hatched.
The newly hatched larva is of a pale drab colour,
with pinkish-grey bands across most of the middle
segments of the body ; the head, the plate on the
second segment, and that on the anal segment brown.
After trying them with several grasses I found on the
29th of July that the larvse had eaten only of Phalaris
arundinacea, attacking it lengthwise and eating little
channels between the fibres, quite through the sub-
stance of the leaf, the larva then being whitish, the
head and plates as before.
On August 9th the larva? had grown a little, but
were still very slender and pale in colour, the head
and plate on the second segment brown, the plate on
segment 13 and two transverse dots on the front of
that segment of the same colour ; the body limpid and
watery-looking, tinged on the back with a faint brown-
ish-greenish, and showing a subdorsal paler line on
each side ; the belly almost colourless.
August 15th I had the misfortune to kill one larva
and to find that only two were left, both about to
moult and much browner than before. On the 19th,
whilst changing food, I had the misfortune to kill
another while searching for it.
94 APAMEA OPHIOGRAMMA.
The Phalaris I had potted continuing to wither, I
potted some of the garden striped variety, and put on
it the one remaining larva on the 23rd August, which
soon ate its way into the main stem by the axil of a
leaf. At this time the larva was a quarter of an inch
long, very slender, and transparent greenish, with
brown marbling on back and sides, forming a broad
transverse band across each segment, through which
ran the dorsal and subdorsal paler lines of greenish ;
the head and plates brown as before. (W B., Note
Book III, 243.)
Plate LXVII, fig. 4.
After fruitless researches at various times during a
quarter of a century by many skilful collectors
desirous to find the larva of this species — reputed to
be abundant in fens and similar places — my hope of
obtaining it had almost died out, but revived towards
the end of last year with encouragement from Mr. W.
H. B. Fletcher, when he made known to me that very
strenuous efforts had been devoted to it, and would
be continued until the mystery of its habitat was
The success that crowns perseverance has in this
case been happily exemplified by Mr. Albert Houghton,
of Wicken, who deserves great credit for his praise-
worthy efforts in bringing this larva to light, after it
had so completely baffled all who had before searched
for it in this country.
Without questioning the accuracy of Treitschke,*
* Treitschke's authority for this statement is thus given (v, 2, 332) : —
" According to the manuscript journal of a worthy entomologist, which
contains several precious observations, the writer found at the begin-
ning of June, in Iris pseudacorus, a larva which had quite eaten away
the flower-stem. The larva was an inch and a half long, changed to a
pupa within the plant, and produced the moth, above described, at the
end of June."
APAMEA FIBROSA. 95
who assigned to fibrosa the flower-stems of Iris pseuda-
corus, I yet may venture to say there seems to me but
little doubt that this conclusion may probably have
been drawn from an aberrant example, as latterly in
England there had come to be a consensus of opinion
that it could not be found in those stems.
But, however that may have been, it is now certain
that I had the great pleasure to receive this larva from
Mr. Fletcher on the 1st of July, 1883, being one of
several Mr. Houghton had a day or two before sent to
him, and these were supplemented with further
examples, and on the 21st Mr. Fletcher most kindly
presented me with one of the pupae which had resulted
Of course I tended the larva most assiduously with
fresh, but substitute, food, from the most likely aquatic
plants I could find, including at first Sparganium, Iris,
and Gar ex, giving it the lower part of each next the
root ; but it persistently refused the first two named,
and ate only of Carex paludosa, and very sparingly of
that, as though not quite to its taste. Yet, seeing it
eat, I was hopeful the first three or four days of rear-
ing it, but was soon undeceived, as just within a week
it died of atrophy, after vainly wandering about in
quest of its proper food-plant, the great fen sedge,
Mr. Houghton was led to his discovery of the larva
by observing that when the crop of this sedge had
been cut and removed there were some of these plants
that had not pushed out fresh shoots, and looked as
though dead in the middle. These on being closely
examined proved to be tenanted by the larvce, whose
ravages had thus betrayed them to him, and from the
experience subsequently gained he arrived at the con-
clusion that each larva had ravaged about nine or ten
shoots of Cladium before it was fed up.
When the Cladium is mown, the situation of the
larva is found to average a distance of about an inch
and three-quarters below the cut surface, where the
96 APAMEA FIBROSA.
leaves are grown so compactly together as to form
almost a solid substance, and there, a little above the
root-stock on the outside, is a roundish hole, pierced
horizontally or tortuously to the very heart or centre
of the plant, whence this excavation is enlarged and
extended either upwards or downwards, or a little in
both directions, just as the larva chooses to feed ; and
the hollow residence thus eaten out is thereby more or
less irregular in form and direction, though generally
an inch and a half in perpendicular length, and from
a quarter to three-eighths in width, as from a sample
comprising a good number of these excavations, most
kindly sent by Mr. Fletcher for my inspection, I found
all varying a little from each other, though in one
important particular they were alike, — in the fact of
their being just sufficiently low down to escape the
scythe of the mower.
On the 14th of August I bred the moth, a female.
The length of the larva I figured was from thirteen to
fourteen lines ; it was of moderate thickness and very
cylindrical throughout, except that the head was a trifle
smaller than the second segment, and the third and
fourth rather the stoutest, the thirteenth with a very re-
markable sloping plate on the anal Rap, flattened in the
middle and having a prominent ridge round the margin,
with large tubercular warts at the hinder edge ; the
segmental divisions plainly defined, and also the sub-
dividing wrinkles across the back of each beyond the
fourth, viz. one not far from the beginning, another
well behind the first pair of tubercular warts, and a
third a little behind the second pair of the trapezoid.
All the legs were very well developed. In colour the
head was of a dark warm brown, darkest at the mouth
and very glossy, a black glossy plate on the second seg-
ment, the anal plate blackish-brown with black mar-
ginal ridge and posterior warts ; the rest of the body
above was of a very dark slaty-brown, rather inclining
to a very deep olivaceous drab, especially on the
thoracic segments ; the belly and legs a lighter drab,
APAMEA FIBROSA. 97
the faintly paler dorsal and subdorsal lines of drab
just distinct enough to be seen ; the tubercular warts
black-brown, each with a fine hair, and in relative
sizes and situation arranged precisely the same as in
Rydrdecia micacea ; the spiracles oval and black, the
ventral and anal prolegs barred with black, the feet
fringed with dark-brown hooks that clung to any sur-
face they touched ; the skin, generally soft and smooth,
glistened slightly at the wrinkles while the larva was
The cocoon was about an inch long and half an inch
wide, of elliptical figure, composed of earthy particles
mixed with moss and other vegetable comminuted
matter, the inside smoothly lined with brownish silk.
The pupa was 9 lines in length, of stout and robust
character, the eye-pieces rather prominent, and beneath
them the head produced to an obtuse point ; the thorax
thick, with a swollen rounded form, the wing-covers
and all other parts clearly defined and smoothly wrapped
close to the body ; the lower abdominal rings tapered
gently to the tip, which ended with two fine points ;
in colour the head, thorax, and wing-covers were of a
very deep olive-green, the abdomen of a less deep and
brownish olive-green, the divisions of the moveable
rings darker, the surface shining ; the two anal points
had become entangled in silk threads that held the
old larval skin, and this skin still retained the very
remarkable anal plate already described, in such per-
fect condition as to afford the most satisfactory iden-
tification. (W. B., 3, 12, 83; B.M.M. XX, 176,
Plate LXVII, fig. 5.
On the 22nd of April, 1879, I received a larva in a
grass culm from the Rev. E. T. Daubeny, and another
from Mr. W. R. Jeffrey on 28th, and on supplying a stem
VOL TV. 7
98 APAMEA OCTTLEA.
of Dactylis glomerata to the first-named larva on May
3rd I found I had unwittingly gathered a third larva.
All were precisely alike and fed inside the stems on
their linings, and on the tender embryo blossoms.
The larva is tough to the touch, cylindrical, though
rather stoutest at the thoracic segments, whence it
tapers to the rather narrow, pointed and flattened
head, and also gradually to the anal segment. At the
date last given (May 3rd) the larvae measured from
five-eighths to barely three-quarters of an inch, and the
colour of the body was light greenish, there being a
dorsal marking of this colour rather broad and of oval
shape on each segment, thus forming a string of egg-
shapes down the back, defined by a stripe of dingy
pinkish or purplish-pink on each side.
By the 9th of May the larvae had grown to be seven-
eighths of an inch long, the green egg-shapes on the
back were less distinct, being longer and more uniform
in width, and a central pulsating vessel of dingy
greenish showed faintly through the skin ; the dingy
purplish-pink stripe on either side of the green dorsal
line was rather ragged edged; the segments were
plump in character, but each had several fine trans-
verse wrinkles ; the head, partly retractile within the
second segment, was light brown, with the mouth
darker, the ocelli black ; the light brown plate on the
second segment was divided dorsally by a paler line ;
on the anal segment was a semicircular pale brown
plate, very shining, like that on the second segment
and the head ; the skin generally had scarcely any
gloss, though glistening a little along the sides in
places, below the pink stripes aud above the spiracles ;
these last were dirty whitish, finely outlined with
black, situated on the trachea, which showed through
faintly as a pale thread. (W. B., Note Book III,
M1ANA FASOIUNOULA. 99
Plate LXVIII, fig. 2.
For many years this larva eluded all my attempts
to find it, until I was befriended by the chance visit of
a female moth to a small pot of Aira cxspitosa, which
for two years or more had been standing in an upper
window, generally open in fine weather. On this
grass, some time in 1874, she was obliging enough to
deposit an egg, and in no other way could my good
luck have occurred, as the pot of grass had not been
used for anything during the year, but was kept in
reserve against the possibility of being wanted at any
Whilst watering the grass on the 23rd of April,
1875, 1 was surprised to see some of the blades much
eaten, apparently by a Lepidopterous larva. This set
me searching, and at length I detected the larva cun-
ningly hidden in the dry sheath of a stem, which was
drawn round it with a few threads just at the axil of
a green blade, the greater part of the grass being dry.
I saw at once this larva was that of a Miana, but one
I had not before seen, and as it seemed nearly full-fed,
I figured it next day, and tended it carefully.
It continued to feed very well til) the 1st of May,
and on the 2nd, when about to supply earth to its
cage, I found it had already spun itself up in a light
silken cocoon, under three pieces of the grass, and
attached firmly to the bottom of the cage. The moth,
a male, emerged on June 2nd.
The length of the larva was nearly seven -eighths of
an inch ; it was slender and cylindrical, though tapering
from the third segment to the head, which was small
and rather flattened, tapering also a little from the
eleventh to the end of the thirteenth segment The
skin was of tough consistence, finely and conspicuously
wrinkled transversely, and rather glistening ; the
shining head of a light brown colour, darker brown at
100 MIANA FASCIUNCULA.
the mouth ; a light brown shining plate on the second
segment and another on the anal flap, all the rest of
the body having a ground colour of a pale and subdued
flesh tint, rather inclining to greyish-ochreous ; the
dorsal stripe, of a darker tint of this colour, was well
deQned by a stripe of the pale ground on either side;
next a very broad stripe of pinkish-brown, followed by
a narrow stripe of the pale ground, finely edged below
with pinkish-brown; another narrow stripe of the pale
ground follows, and then a stripe composed of faint
freckles of pale pinkish-brown, beneath which came
the black spiracles. On the sides of the second, third,
and fourth segments were rather large, brown, shining
spots ; the anterior legs were pinkish-brown, the pro-
legs tipped with light brown ; a fine soft hair pro-
ceeded from each of the brownish tubercular dots,
which could only be seen with the aid of a strong lens.
The pupa-skin was a little over three-eighths of an
inch in length, stout in proportion, the head and
thorax rounded, and of about uniform bulk to a little
below the wing-covers, the abdomen tapering thence
to the tip, which was furnished with two diverging
curved points and surrounded with a few minute
bristles ; the colour mahogany-brown and glossy.
(W. B., 7, 76 ; E.M.M. XIII, 62, August, 76.)
Plate LXVIII, fig. 3.
Eggs of this species arrived the 29th August, 1871,
from Mr. George Norman, of Forres. The eggs were
laid in little clusters and singly, and were not very
small in reference to the size of the moth.
In shape the egg is spherical, a little flattened
beneath, ribbed and reticulated ; in colour a pale
straw tint, changing by September 9th to a dirty
flesh-colour, then to a drab and greyish just before
MIANA LITEROSA. 101
The first egg hatched September 9th. The young
larva was rather slender in proportion, its colour pale
brownish flesh-colour, and very highly polished ; the
head dark blackish-brown, a paler dark brown plate
on the second segment, and another on the anal flap.
(W. B., Note Book I, 133.)
On the 1st of June, 1880, five larvse from Mr. J.
Gardner, of Hartlepool, came ; they were in the stems
of Dactylis glomerata and some other grass. The
sign of the presence of a larva in a stem is that the
stem turns white and shows conspicuously amongst
the sound green stems. The full-grown larva is from
three-quarters to seven-eighths of an inch in length,
stoutest at the fourth segment, tapering thence to the
head, and also very gradually to the anal segment.
On the 7th of June, 1880, I received from the Rev.
Charles R. Digby, of Studland Rectory, parts of an
immature flowering stem with flower end of Iris
foetidissima, in which a larva, seven-eighths of an inch
long, of literosa was feeding, a second larva having
escaped from the holes made in the box.
The ground colour of this individual was light
ochreous-yellow, with scarcely any tinge of greenish ;
the space between the dorsal and subdorsal lines was
brighter pink than usual, forming two broad stripes
of that colour. When the larva was walking the
wrinkles on the back would open and show off the
ground colour, but on contraction they would shrink
together, and thus form a darker pink on the pink
parts. The plate on the second segment was light
brown, edged in front with darker brown.
This larva spun up within the shrivelling remains
of the flower bud it had eaten out, in a thin silken
cocoon, and the moth emerged on the 24th of July.
The pupa, half an inch long, was decidedly stout
in proportion, the thorax and wing-covers well deve-
loped, tapering a little towards the anal tip, which was
furnished with two slightly diverging points, and sur-
rounded with four very minute curly -topped bristles ;
102 MIANA LITEROSA.
the colour a dark chestnut-brown, the surface smooth
and shining. (W. B., Note Book IV, 15.)
Plate LXVIII, fig. 4.
In April last I had the pleasure to receive several
larvae of this species, for which I am greatly indebted
to the most kind exertions of Dr. Knaggs, who has
thus brought another unknown larva to light.
These larvae were found feeding in stems of Festuca
arimdinacea, the interiors of which they entirely de-
voured, leaving only the outer cuticle, in which, towards
the end of June, they spun a very slight envelope of
silk, and changed to the pupa state, the moths appear-
ing from July 9th to 19th.
This larva, when two-thirds grown, is about
three-quarters of an inch in length, very smooth and
shining, cylindrical, and plump, but tapering a little
at both extremities, and the head very small and
slightly flattened. The ground colour is a yellowish
flesh tint, and it is marked on each segment with three
transverse bands (the widest in front) of dull mottled
reddish or dingy pinkish, very distinct on the back,
but paler on the sides, and through them run the
dorsal and subdorsal stripes of the clear ground
colour. The spiracles are minute and black; the
head dark reddish- brown ; a small pale reddish-brown
plate on the second, and another on the anal segment.
The anterior legs dark brown, and the prolegs tipped
with dark brown.
As the larvae became full grown their markings
faded away until they appeared uniformly of a yel-
lowish-white, with a dark grey pulsating vessel, show-
ing through some of the anterior segments. (W. B.,
E.M.M. IV., 137, November, 67.)
MIANA EXPOLITA. 103
Plate LXVIII, fig. 5.
With much gratification I am able to record the
interesting discovery of the larva of M . expolita, and
of its food-plant ; a puzzle that had hitherto baffled all
attempts at solution has at length been unravelled by
the assiduous efforts of Mr. J. Gardner, of Hartlepool,
to whose kindness I have been indebted for the oppor-
tunities of studying the larva, both in the past and
An attempt to rear this species from the egg was
undertaken by the Rev. J. Hellins in 1873, when I
received eggs from Mr. J. E. Robson, of Hartlepool,
and in this way a record was made of the earlier stages,
although but a single larva reached full growth, and
that disappeared before the change to a pupa could
The eggs laid on July 22nd arrived on the 24th,
1873 ; the larvae were hatched on August 3rd, and
were put into a bottle at first with various grasses,
out of which they seemed to choose the garden ribbon-
grass, Phalaris arundinacea, var. ; so, in the course
of the autumn, they were placed on growing plants of
this grass in a flower-pot and put out of doors ; about
the middle of October one was extracted from its
mine in the stem of this grass, and figured by me ;
after hibernation it was again extracted at the end of
April, 1874, and again figured and sent back to its food ;
but after this it disappeared, and so nothing could be
published about it.
Mr. Gardner kindly sent me a full-grown larva and
its food-plant (Car ex glauca) last year, when I first
bred this moth ; and this year six larvae, more or less
mature, on the 31st of May, and the moths appeared
July 13th to 19th. The plants of Car ex were from
six to eight inches in height, and the habit of the
larva is to eat out the very hea t of the plant, working
104 MIANA EXPOLITA.
its way down to the white portion close to the root
and, as Mr. Gardner observed, when one plant has
yielded its nourishment the larva migrates to another ;
and of this habit he had good evidence in some plants
he found ravaged and deserted by their former
The egg was noted as being of globular shape, with
soft glistening shell, scarcely showing traces of a sort
of pitting all over ; in colour a very pale straw-
The newly hatched larva was of the regular Miana
form, stoutest at third segment, whitish in colour,
shining, with the head black, a dark plate on second
segment, the usual dots very small and distinct, but
dark in colour.
In captivity about the last week in October, before
hibernation, the larva was nearly or quite five-six-
teenths of an inch long, of the true Miana figure,
stoutest at the third and fourth segments, tapering a
little behind ; the head, smaller than the second, is flat-
tened and wedge-shaped towards the front, and of
reddish-brown colour, darker brown at the mouth ; a
broad shining semi-transparent plate on the second
segment of the same colour as the back, which is
lightish orange-brown, having a dorsal line of pale
orange-ochreous, with two short transverse bars about
the middle of each segment ; the subdorsal marking
of the same pale colour is broadish and bounded below
by the light orange-brown of the side, from which an
upward curved streak intersects the marking at the
first subdividing wrinkle, and two shorter curves
follow without much intersection ; the black spiracle
at the lower edge is followed by the pale orange-
ochreous of the belly ; a pale shining plate is on the
After hibernation, at the end of April, the larva is
nearly half an inch long, rather slender but still
thickest at the thoracic segments ; the design and
colouring of the back and sides are much the same as
MIANA BXPOLITA. 105
before, but less well denned, as the brown of the back
and sides is paler, and the belly has a faint watery
greenish-yellow tint; the anterior legs are reddish-
When found at large in the Garex, full grown, the
larva is from half an inch to nearly five-eighths in
length, of the same general figure as above, the seg-
mental folds well defined, the subdividing wrinkles are
deep on the third and fourth but moderate on other
segments, which are dimpled along the sides ; the
general ground colour of the body is dull ochreous
with a tinge of reddish ; the back is deeply tinged with
dull purplish-red on the third, fourth, fifth, sixth,
seventh, and eighth segments ; the dorsal line so in-
conspicuous as only just to be discerned as pulsating;
the segmental folds are pale ochreous ; the head is
reddish-brown and shining, with dark brown mouth
and black ocelli; a yellow-brown shining plate on the
second segment has its front margin rather darker
brown, the anterior legs of the same colour; on the
sides of the third and fourth segments is a triangular
group of three large brownish-yellow horny spots ; the
ordinary tubercular dots on other parts of the body
are very minute, each with a fine short bristly hair,
and a faintly paler ring round its base ; the spiracles
black, the narrow plate of yellowish-brown on the fore-
part of the anal segment has its front margin rather
bluntly pointed in the centre, that of the anal flap is
of the same shining colour, flattened, but with a little
raised ridge round behind, from which proceed a few
short bristly hairs, the ventral and anal prolegs tipped
with brown hooks ; the skin of the body is smooth, but
The pupa is subterranean, but often lies only a short
distance beneath the surface, and sometimes is scar eel v
buried amongst vegetable remains slightly held to-
gether by a few threads of silk ; it is five-sixteenths of
an inch in length, and of the usual Noctua form, stout
across the thorax, the abdomen tapering and ending
106 MIANA EXPOLITA.
with two fine points ; its colour for a time is very pale
brown, afterwards dark brown, its surface shining.
(W. B., 11, 8, 81, E.M.M. XVIII, 76, September, 1881.)
Plate LXVIII, fig. 6.
Thanks to the persistent efforts of Mr. James Batty,
of Sheffield, I am able to offer a description of the
larva of this species, as I believe for the first time.
On the 23rd of May, 1870, Mr. Batty found several
larvae and subsequently more, and also some pupae, by
searching the crown of the roots of Aira csespitosa ;
and he kindly sent me on the 24th three of the
larvae, which were then apparently full grown. To
the two most advanced I gave some cut lengths of the
lower part of the grass stems placed on a bedding of
portions of the roots carefully picked to pieces, so as
to ensure the absence of any other creature. The
third larva, after being figured and described, was
placed in a pot with a small growing plant of the grass,
which had also been carefully examined; it soon
crept into the middle of the small plant, and I did not
see it again, for I was unwilling to interfere with it.
The other two I looked at each time of feeding, up
to the 2nd of June, when I found that one of them
had partly spun together two pieces of the dried
grass sheath ; after that, being satisfied with this
hopeful event, I did not disturb them further.
The first moth, a male, appeared in the cylinder that
confined the growing plant on June 30th ; only one
of the other two emerged, on July 2nd, a female ; and
about the same time Mr. Batty reported his having
bred a series of both sexes.
The full-grown larva varies from five-eighths to
three-quarters of an inch in length, is moderately
slender, the last three segments tapering a little to-
wards the hinder extremity, the back just a very little
MIANA ARCUOSA. 107
arched in front ; the head smaller than the second
segment, and flattened above towards the month ; with
these exceptions the figure is tolerably cylindrical, and
its texture of considerable toughness. The ground is
either a delicate cream or pale flesh -colour, with three
transverse bars of pale brownish or deeper flesh- colour
on the back of each segment ; these bars are all inter-
rupted down the middle of the back by a distinct
dorsal stripe of flesh -colour still paler than the ground ;
the subdorsal stripe is less pale aud less distinct ; the
spiracles are black, and the region round them rather
puffed ; the ventral surface and prolegs of the pale
ground colour ; the head is glossy brown, darkest round
the mouth ; a paler brown equally glossy plate is on the
second segment, divided by a slender line of flesh-colour;
and a still paler brown shining plate is on the anal tip ;
the anterior legs are of the same pale brown colour.
I must not omit to mention that the Rev. I 1 !. Hallett
Todd most kindly sent me two larvae identical with
the above, which he found in the roots of Air a csespitosa
in May, 1867 ; but they died in the pupa state, and
remained as an enigma unsolved till this season.
(W. B., 7, 11, 70, E.M.M VII, 260, April, 1871.)
C ELENA HaWORTHII.
Plate LXVIII, fig. 7.
Beyond the very brief note by the late Mr. R. S.
Edleston, of Manchester, in the " Zoologist," xv, 5405,
I am not aware of any published account of the larva
of this species ; and having had a great desire to
become acquainted with it ever since I read that note, and
having corresponded with Mr. Edleston on the subject,
I at last found a friend who could help me to my object
in Mr. James Batty, of Sheffield From him I received
on the 21st of last July four larvae, which he had taken
from Eriophorum vaginatum. They were found feed-
ing a little above the root- stocks growing in a damp
108 CEL^NA HAWOKTHII.
soil on wild moorland ; and Mr. Batty kindly sent a
large tuft of the growing grass, which sufficed for
bringing the larvae to full growth.
Of the four larva?, one was evidently diseased, as it
died on the evening after its arrival, but the remaining
three were lively and fed well ; and as one of them
seemed to be full-fed by the 25th of the month, I then
kept it apart from the rest, and saw it was beginning to
spin up on the same evening : on the 31st I made an
examination, and was glad to observe it in the pupa
state, reposing in a perpendicular position within a
slight cocoon composed of a few silken threads of
rather open work, holding around it some gnawings of
grass and a little " frass," and situated amid the
sheaths of the grass shoots. The perfect insect, a
male, came forth on the 1 5th of August ; but unfortu-
nately the tuft of grass grew mouldy, and thus the
other two never reached the imago state.
The full-grown larva was three-quarters of an inch
in length, and of moderate stoutness, cylindrical in
character, except that the thickest segments were the
third and fourth, the body tapering from them to the
head, which was the smallest, and again behind most
gradually and slightly to the rounded anal tip, the
plate on which was flattened, and rather depressed
in the middle, having a slight marginal ridge behind.
The colour of the head, of the plate next to it, as
well as of that on the hinder segment, was pale reddish-
brown, and highly polished, while the plate on the
second segment was margined in front with dark brown;
the mouth and ocelli dark brown ; the body of a
middle tint of purplish-brown above, and paler below
the spiracles, including the belly and legs ; the skin,
though smooth, quite without gloss ; a faint dorsal
paler line was visible chiefly at the end of each seg-
ment ; the subdorsal stripe a little more distinct and
paler ; the round tubercular warty spots were all very
dark brown and shining, each being furnished with an
excessively fine short brown hair ; the usual trapezoidal
CEL^NA HAWORTHII. 109
series on the back, gradually decreasing in size from
the fourth to the eleventh segment, were more con-
spicuous on the thoracic segments, for there they
were transversely oval in form, as they also were on
the twelfth, and on the front subdivision of the thir-
teenth segment, and considerably enlarged on these
last; most of the spots along the sides were round, a
small one a little above and a large one a little behind
each black spiracle, while lower down towards the
belly were two more in a line with each other parallel
to the line of spiracles ; those on the sides of the
third and fourth segments were larger, and somewhat
of a drop shape, the largest being behind ; below them
were three others, smaller, forming a triangle on each
of these segments ; the side spots were also enlarged
on the twelfth and thirteenth segments ; the hind ridge
of the anal plate and the tips of the ventral prolegs
were dark ochreous-brown.
The above description exactly suited to the three
healthy larvse, and also the sickly one as far as details
went, but the colour of the skin of that larva was pale
The pupa was half an inch in length, moderately
thick in proportion, widest across the thorax, and
thence diminishing a little towards the blunt and
rounded anal extremity, which was furnished with two
sharp bristle-like spikes meeting near their points ; the
wing-cases were well defined, but not very projecting ;
its colour at first was a light reddish-brown, which
changed gradually afterwards to darker brown, the
abdominal divisions a little paler than the rest and
with little gloss, the other parts being highly polished.
(W. B., 10, 72, E.M.M. IX, ]95, January, 1873.)
110 GRAMMESIA TRILINEA.
Plate LXIX, fig. 1.
In June, 1864, I obtained eggs of this species from
moths taken at flowers of yellow-rattle, the larvas from
which appeared during the same month. A few of
these I put on a broad-leaved plantain in a flower-pot,
and soon saw signs of their taking to their food. After
a time, however, I missed them, and at first concluded
that they had been eaten by some spider, slug, centi-
pede, ant, or other wild beast ; still I kept the gauze
covering on the flower-pot, and finding that the plan-
tain was continually kept level with the earth, I at
last turned out earth and all, and thus detected the
missing larvas, much grown in size, and very muddy in
appearance from having burrowed an inch or more
under the surface : they seemed to eat the stem of the
plantain as well as the leaves, and continued their
subterranean habits until the last, seldom — and then
only at night — showing themselves above ground, and
changing to pupse about the end of April.
The description of the larva in the ' Manual,' from
Freyer, is good as far as it goes, but is rather too much
curtailed, so I venture to add a few particulars noted
by Mr. Buckler and myself, premising that the first
step in describing trilinea must be to give the larvas a
good washing. In form the larva is short and thick,
very wrinkled, the head small and retractile, also the
thirteenth segment very small, the segmental folds
Ground colour variable — sometimes dark grey; then
the dorsal line is pale grey, edged with black at the
segmental folds. The subdorsal line is a series of pale
grey wedges on the several segments, the thin end of
each wedge pointing forwards, and its upper side
bordered by a short oblique black stripe, and its bigger
end enclosing a black dot ; below again comes a rather
broad dark brown stripe, and below that a narrow one
GRAMMESIA TRILINEA. Ill
of grey ; spiracles black, eacli placed on a little swell-
ing ; belly pale grey. Sometimes the ground colour
is a dirty reddish-brown, with the dorsal line partak-
ing of the same tint, but paler, edged with black as
before, most distinctly at the folds ; the subdorsal
row of stripes of the same colour as the dorsal line,
but of uniform width, and showing distinctly only on
the anterior part of each segment, where also appear
a pair of black dots; the spiracular brown stripe
tinged with ochreous. There is another variety of a
dirty flesh-colour, with the markings but faintly visible.
(J. H., 6, 2, 66 9 E.M.M. II, 278, May, 66.)
PI. LXIX, fig. 2.
While searching for larvae in an orchard, in the
evening of September 12th, 1864, I found a small
larva, then unknown to me, feeding on the lower leaf
of a dwarf bramble close to the ground. As it ap-
peared mature while it was before me to be figured,
the next day I was induced to provide it with earth
as well as with food, and before long, after feeding a
little, it spun itself up in an earthen cocoon, placed
just beneath the surface of the soil, and attached to a
leaf and part of the stem of the bramble ; from this a
fine female specimen of Morpheus emerged on the 7th
of June, 1865.
Since this my first introduction to the species,
having been desirous of a further acquaintance with
the larva for the purpose of testing the correctness of
its assigned habit of hibernating and feeding again in
the spring, I feel greatly indebted to Mr. W. H. Har-
wood for sending me five larvae on September 29th,
1871. These he had found with several more, chiefly
on Sedum telephium, but a few on sallow, and one on
These larvae fed very well on the Sedum as long as
112 CARADRINA MORPHEUS.
it could be kept in good condition, but the plant soon
died off, and then, amongst a variety of other food
supplied, sallow obtained the preference. Their pro-
gress was slow, and they delayed spinning until the
15th of October, when the first formed its cocoon in a
sallow leaf ; on the 18th two spun up in dock leaves ;
and on the 22nd one in sallow leaf ; and the last on
the 2nd of November, also in a sallow leaf.
No earth was allowed them, in order that I might
be better able to observe their behaviour and inspect
their cocoons from time to time. These at first were
sufficiently clear when held between the light and the
eye to show the form of the larva within, but in a few
days their opacity increased and baffled observation.
However, towards the advent of spring I made myself
certain of their containing their inmates, and on the
11th of June, 1872, a female moth appeared. After
waiting a few days I opened the four remaining
cocoons, and found a pupa in one, and in each of the
others a shrivelled dead larva, and was thus confirmed
in my belief that they had all fed up in the autumn.
The full-grown larva, when stretched out, is from
one inch to one inch and one eighth in length, of uni-
form and very moderate stoutness, the head the smallest
segment, and the thirteenth a little tapered ; it is
noticeable that the tubercular small warty dots bear
each an exceedingly fine and pointed hair, hardly to be
seen, in this respect very unlike the blunt bristles of
some of its congeners. In colour it is either a warm
brown or a greyish-brown, the sides being the part
rather deepest in tint ; the spiracular region, belly, and
legs of a paler tint of brown ; the head rather shining
brown, freckled with darker, and having a dark brown
streak down each lobe ; the second, third, and fourth
segments show but little markings, if any, of the dorsal
paler line, whilst on all the others it appears only in an
interrupted manner through a series of diamond shapes
of darker brown freckles, two joined end to end on
each segment, the anterior one very small, the other
CAEADRINA MORPHEUS. 113
extending back to the fold ; the fine subdorsal line is
paler, bordered by a darker brown line, and this on the
fifth to twelfth segments inclusive bears on the ante-
rior half of each a conspicuous blackish mark, much
resembling an arrow point barbed behind, the upper
barb sometimes prolonged faintly in brown atoms
towards the hinder part of the chief dorsal diamond ;
the sides bear some faint zigzag rows of dark brown
freckles ; the spiracles are of the ground colour faintly
outlined with blackish, not very noticeable ; the belly
is less freckled with brown, and has some few spots
paler than the ground.
The pupa is not quite half an inch in length, mode-
rately stout, the wing-cases rather long, and the tip
of the abdomen terminated with two minute bristles
curved at their extremities. The colour is dark reddish-
brown and very shining. The cocoon is rather tough.
(W. B., 10, 3, 74; E.M.M. X, 254, April, 74.)
The following list of parasites, bred from the larvae
or pupae of the species included in the present volume,
has been kindly prepared by Mr. G. 0. Bignell, F.E.S.
— H. T. S.
Cymatophora or . ,
Bryophila perla. . . .
Diphthera Orion ...
„ rumicis . . .
Ichneumon fabricator, Fabriciu s ")
Hemiteles fulvipes, Gravenhorst >
Apanteles glomeratus, Linne ... )
Hemiteles oxyphimus, Gravenhorst
Campoplex pugillator, Linne
Anomalon Jlaveolatum, Graven
Ichneumon bilineatus, Gmelin
Pimpla instigator, Fabricius
Limneria unicincta, Gravenhorst
Exorista lota, Meigen \
Ophion luteum, Linne \
Phorocera concinnata, Meigen
Limneria unicincta, Gravenhorst .
Paniscus testaceus, Gravenhorst <
Exorista hortulana, Meigen <
By whom bred.
Exorista affinis, Fallen <
Microgaster rugulosus, Nees
Anomalon perspicillator, Graven-
Ichneumon fuscipes, Gmelin . . . \
Cryptus moschator, Fabricius . . . )
Cryptus tricolor, Gravenhorst
Exorista vulgaris, Fallen . .
Ophion luteum, Linne
Limneria crassicornis, Graven-
Apanteles ruficrus, Haliday <
Apanteles spurius, Wesmael ... <
Chasmodes motatorius, Fabricius ,
Ichneumon lineator, Fabricius
.Ichneumon qusesitorius, Linne
Paniscus testaceus, Gravenhorst . . .
Ichneumon qusesitorius, Linne
T. A. Marshall.
G. C. Bignell.
T. R. Billups.
F. D. Wheeler.
J. E. Fletcher.
J. E. Fletcher.
T. A. Chapman.
A. A. Lascelles.
G. T. Porritt.
E. A. Fitch.
W. H. Harwood.
E. A. Butler.
G. F. Mathew.
W. P. Weston.
„ petasitis .
Xylophasia rurea . . .
Luperina testacea . . .
„ cespitis ...
Mamestra brassicse .
Apamea gemina . . .
„ unanimis .
Miana fitruncula ...
Ichneumon saturatorius, Linne. . . <
Exophanes occupator, Gravenhorst
Exophanes occupator, Gravenhorst
Ichneumon lineator, Fabricms...,
Ichneumon impressor, Graven-^
Microplitis — sp. ?
Macrocentrus infirmus,* Nees
Ichneumon fabricator, Fabricius . .
Ichneumon fabricator, Fabricius ..
Apanteles falcatus, Nees
Lissonota impressor, Gravenhorst
Microplitis spinolse, Nees
Phygadeuon fumator, Gravenhorst
Exetastes osculatorius, Fabricius...
Exetastes illusor, Gravenhorst
Exorista vulgaris, Fallen
Ichneumon fabricator, Fabricius . . .
Bhogas irregularis, "Wesmael
Exetastes osculatorius, Fabricius...
Exophanes exulans, Gravenhorst...
Bhogas dimidiatus, Spinola
By whom bred.
W. R. Jeffrey.
J. P. Cregoe.
W. J. Cross.
P. B. Mason.
F. N. Pierce.
S. D. Baristow.
# 174 from one larva, all females.
Alni, Acronycta .
Arcuosa, Miana .
Elymi, Nonagria .
Expolita, Miana .
Fulva, Nonagria .
Furva, Mamestra .
Gemina, Apamea .
Hepatica, Xylopbasia .
Leporina, Acronycta .
Literosa, Miana .
Oculea, Apamea .
Orion, Dipbtbera .
PRINTED BY ADLABD AND SON, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE.
1, la, lb, larvae after last moult.
2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult.
3, larva after last moult.
See pp. 1, 2.
4, 4 a, larvae after last moult.
See p. 2.
5, larva after last moult.
6, 6 a, larvae after last moult ; 6 b 9 pupa,
7, 7 a, larvae after last moult.
See pp. 2 — 6.
PlcLte 1 1Y
I 1 - G.Moox-e/Jith.
W BUCKLER d*L.
We3t,~Nevmiaxi &, C°imp.
W.BUCKLEt 1 <xet.
"Weat,"Newma2i. &. G ?imp .
1,1a, larvae after last moult.
2, 2 a, 2 6, 2 c, larvae after last moult.
3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult (on yellow lichens
on walls, April 1st, 1865).
4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae after last moult (& and c on
yellow wall-lichen, April 1st, 1865).
5, ha, 5 b 9 larvae after last moult (a on oak,
August 7th, 1875 — moth out June 4th, 1876; 5 and
b on oak, August 7th and 8th, 1876 — moth June
See pp. 6 — 8.
1,1a, larvae after last moult (a on garden pear,
September 20th, 1872; imago ? June 22nd, 1873).
2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult.
3, larva before last moult ; 3 a, larvae after last
See pp. 8, 9.
4, larva after last moult.
5, 5 a, larvae after last moult.
6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae after last moult (on hawthorn,
September 29th, 1862, September 10th, 1864, and
September 1st, 1866).
See pp. 9—13.
W. BUCKLER dUL.
W. BUCKLER dLeh
1, 1 a, young larvae in the "bird's dirt" stage;
lb, 1 c, larvae after last moult.
See pp. 13—19.
2, 2 a, larvae after last moult.
3, 3 a, larvae after last moult (three on bramble
October 19th, 1863 ; a on peach September 21st,
1874; imago June 15th, 1875).
See pp. 19, 20.
4, larva after last moult (on oak and bramble,
July 10th; imago August 3rd, 1866).
See pp. 20, 21.
5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae after last moult (on heath,
sallow, and bog-myrtle, September 27th and 28th,
1867; imagos June 18th and 21st, 1868).
6, 6 a, larvae after last moult (on sallow,
heather, birch, and bog-myrtle 5 September 12th
and 14th, 1869 ; imago June 27th, 1870).
See pp. 21—23.
7, 7 a, larvae after last moult (on common reed,
September 21st, 1862).
1,1a, lb, larvae after last moult (on Triticum
repens and other grasses, May 19th ; imagos July
8th— 10th, and 12th, 1865).
See pp. 23, 24.
2, 2 a, 2 6, larvae after last moult (on grass in
woods, March 13th, April 5th and 25th ; imago
June 18th, 1862).
3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 a 7 , larvae after last moult (on
grasses, April 3rd and 16th, May 11th; imago July
10th— 14th, 1861).
4, 4 a, larvae after last moult (on Arundo phrag-
mites, August 18th, 1863).
5, 5 a, 5 6, larvae after last moult (from Torquay,
on small grasses, October 7th — 12th, and 24th,
1864; imago August 3rd, 1865).
See pp. 24, 25.
West^Iewmar; cjc Co imp .
FC.Moore lith .
West , Newmaxi 3c Co .imp
1, la, lb, larvae after last moult (on Ammo-
jphila arundinaceo, May 4th — 7th ; imago July 1st —
See pp. 25, 26.
2, 2 a, larvae after last moult (on common reed,
June 6th ; imago July 18th, 1864).
3, 3 a, larvae after last moult (3 rather enlarged j
on cock's-foot grass, July 22nd; full-fed August
8th; one imago October 16th, 1864).
See pp. 26, 27.
4, 4 a, 4 6, 4 c, larvae after last moult (on
Phalaris arundinacea and Arundo phragmites, May
9th— 15th ; imago July 8th and 9th, 1871).
See pp. 27—30.
Leuoania imp or a.
5, 5 <x, 5 b, 5 c, larvae after last moult (5 on
grasses, Exeter, May 12th — imago July 5th, 1865 ;
a on grass, May 20th — imago ? July 9th, 1867 ; one
on Luzula, May 9th — imago July 8th, 1862 ; one on
Car ex, June 1st — imago July 10th, 1870).
1, 1 a, 1 b, larvse after last moult (b on Aim csespi-
tosa, reared from eggs ; figured May 30th, full-fed
June 4th, imago July 9th, 1866).
See pp. 30, 31.
2, larva after last moult (in stems and on common
reed, June 27th, 1863).
3, 3 a, larvse after last moult ; 3 c, magnified view
of two segments of the larva ; 3 b, pupa.
See pp. 32—35.
4, 4 a, larvas after last moult ; 4 b 9 pupa.
See pp. 36—38.
5, larva after last moult ; 5 a, 5 b, adult larvae on
their food-plant (Elymus arenarius). (On Elymus
arenarius, Cleethorpes, near Grimsby, May 1 6th ;
imago July 4th— 9th, 1871.)
See pp. 38—40.
Plate L X.
F C.Moore lith
West, Newman & Co. amp.
w BUCKLES <Ui
1, larvse after last moult (on stem of reed, June
30th and July 1st, 1870).
See pp. 40, 41.
2, young larva ; 2 a, the lower figure represents
larva after last moult, the pupa is seen inside the
hollow stem (June 21st, 1870 ; imago $ July 23rd,
See pp. 42 — 44.
3, young larva ; 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larva9 after last
moult ; 3 d, pupa.
See pp. 44 — 47.
4, 4 a, larvse after last moult ; 4 b, pupa in stem
of Typha latifolia (August 26th, 1863 ; imago Sep-
tember 17th, 1863).
See p. 47.
5, 5 a, larvse after last moult (in lower parts of
stems of Arundo jphrag mites, June 22nd, 1864).
1, young larva (in stem of ragwort, June 17th,
1868); 1 a, adult larva (in stem of burdock, August 8th,
1860) ; 1 b, larva after last moult (in stem of Verbas-
cum nigrum, July 18th; imago September 16th, 1864).
2, young larva ; 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvse after last moult
(at roots of grasses, August 14th ; imago September
19th, 1862, eating Poa maritima growing from under
stones, June 12th, 24th, 28th, July 1st and 4th; bred
August 4th to 10th, 1878).
See pp. 48—50.
3, larva after last moult (in roots of butterbur, July
4, larva after last moult (in stem of Equisetum, June
22nd ; pupa July 15th ; imago August 14th, 1869) ;
4<2, larva after last moult (in root-stem of valerian,
June 25th ; imago August 6th, 1871).
See pp. 51, 52.
5, 5 a, larvse after last moult (5 on sea-spinach,
October 19th, 1860; imago June 16th, 1861 ; a from
Galium mollugo, fed on that plant and on goosefoot,
and on Cynoglossum officinale, &c, August 29th ; spun
up in earthen cocoon September 4th, 1874; imago
June 2nd, 1875).
6, 6 a, 6 b, 6 c, larvae after last moult (on grass,
February 3rd to 6th, and 17th to 27th ; imago May 4th
to 26th, 1862).
F.C. Moore Hth.
W. BUCKLER dUl.
West r Newman & Co imp.
v ** \« A * • i.
y ft* V ! * *
1 I Moore lith
1 9 larva after last moult (at roots of grass, March
22nd, 1871 ; imago June 8th, 1871).
See pp. 52—57.
2, 2 a, 2 b 9 larvae after last moult ; 2 c, pupa ; 2 d 9
magnified dorsal view of segment of larva (2, April
10th ; imago July 6th, 1871 ; a, May 1st, 1866; b 9 at
roots of grass; c, June 30th, 1874).
See pp. 57 — 58.
3, 3 a, 3 b, larvas after last moult (on grass, March
18th; imago June 7th, 1862, and February 25th,
April 1st; imago June 1st to 7th, 1865).
See pp. 58, 59.
4, 4 a 9 4 b, larvas after last moult ; 4 c, pupa (on
coarse wood, grasses, rushes, reeds, and dock, June 1st;
imago July 8th, 1864 : on grasses in woods, June
12th ; imago July 11th to 15th, 1875).
See pp. 59, 60.
5, larva after last moult (on Polygonum and dock,
August 18th, 1862).
6, larva before last moult; 6 a 9 larva after last
moult; 6 b, pupa (from eggs, July 23rd, 31st, 1877,
on Lotus comiculatus and L. major; fond of the
flowers : moths bred April 17th, 22nd, 1878).
See pp. 60—63.
1, 1 a, 1 c, young larvaa, figured in February or early
in March ; lb, Id, 1 e, If, 1 g, larva3 after last moult,
figured after middle of March, or in April (on Poa
annua and other grasses and chickweed ; moths out
September 22nd to 28th, 1868).
See pp. 63 — 66.
2, 2 a, larvae after last moult (from eggs laid Sep-
tember, 1865, hatched April, 1866, figured June 13th
and 29th, on small grasses ; imago ? September 5th,
and ? September 11th, 1866.
See pp. 67 — 69.
3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult, figured January
21st and February 11th, 1865 (on common grass [Poa
annua ?~\ ; imago October 11th, 1865).
4, 4<a, 4<b, larvae after last moult, June 17th, 19th
and 26th, 1868 (on various grasses ; imago bred from
an unfigured larva, October 5th, 1862).
See p. 70.
F. C. Moore litk.
W. BUCKLER. dueJL.
"We s t, "Ne vrnian 5c Co. imp .
West. Newman <5c Co. imp .
1, larva after fifth moult, September 11th ; 1 b, 1 a,
1 c, larvae after sixth moult, September 30th, October
4th and 18th, 1882 (on Poa annua, from the egg).
See pp. 70—73.
2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult (on grass, January
and March ; imago August 10th, 1864.
3, 3 a, larvae after last moult (at roots of grass,
July 19th; imago September 4th, 1872 : at Worthing,
May 31st; imago August 28th, 1861).
See pp. 73—75.
4, young larva ; 4 a, half-grown larva ; 4 b, 4 c, larvae
after last moult (reared from eggs on Aira csespitosa ;
at roots of Aira flexuosa, May 18th, 1865 ; on hard
grasses, June 26th and July 19th, 1867).
See pp. 75, 76.
5, 5 a, larvae after last moult (on Poa maritima,
June 14th and 16th, 1879 ; moth out S August 2nd).
See pp. 76—79.
1, larva about half grown (on Sisymbrium sojohia,
afterwards on knot-grass) ; 1 a, larva after last moult
(found under goosefoot, July 29th, 1870).
2, 2 a, larvse after last moult (figured May 2nd and
June 16th ; moths bred July 1st to 14th, 1877) (on
fine grasses on top of turfwalls amongst large capping
stones near Paisley).
See pp. 79—84.
3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larvae after last moult (3 on
strawberry, August 24th, 1861 ; a on garden mallow,
October 12th, 1860 ; imago June, 1861 ; b on lettuce ;
c, on garden poppy, July 28th, 1866 ; d, on strawberry
and dock, July 31st, 1861 ; imago June 27th, 1862).
4, 4 <x, 4 6, 4 c, larvse after last moult (on Pteris
aquilina, on the tips of the fern, the green on the green
parts, the brown on the brown parts, September 15th,
1873; b on garden marigold, September 24th, 1874).
5, 5 a, larvae after last moult (on knot-grass, July
28th and August 4th, 1866).
See pp. 66, 67.
West,Newman <5c Co. imp
We st, "Newman. 3cCo imp.
1,1 a, lb, larvae after last moult (1 on grasses, Feb-
ruary 17th, 1862) (a, March 25th ; imago May 12th,
1865; b on grass, February 23rd; imago May 15th,
2, larva before last moult ; 2 a, larva after last
moult (on grass found at roots of turf, very small
January 3rd ; full grown March 18th ; imago June
12th, 1872 : on Poa annua, Phalaris arundinacea,
Triticum repens, &c).
See pp. 86, 87.
3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after last moult (on grass,
March 2nd ; imago June 5th, 1868 ; March 4th ; imago
May 27th to 30th, 1871 ; 3 on garden striped grass,
October 21st, 1871).
See pp. 87—92.
4, larva after last moult (found in Oar ex and Gladium
mariscus at Wicken Fen, July 1st to 6th, 1883, by
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher ; imago August I4th, 1883).
See pp. 94—97.
5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvas after last moult (on grass and
Luzula jpilosa, feeding inside the stems May 7th and
16th, imago July 17th to 31st, 1862 ; 5 in root of Aira
c&spitosa, May 21st ; imago, the I-niger variety, July
25th, 1867 ; c in stem of Festuca arundinacea, April
24th ; imago, the black variety, July 18th, 1867).
See pp. 97, 98.
1, la, lb, larvae after last moult ; a, on cock's-foot
grass and mining in the stems, April 24th ; imago
June 9th, 1865 ; b, on grass, April 11th ; imago June
2, larva after last moult ; on Air a csespitosa between
the blades, April 23rd ; moth out June 2nd, 1875.
See pp. 99, 100.
3, 3 a, larvae after last moult ; 3, mining flower-buds
oilris foetidissima (Rev. 0. R. Digby), June 7th, 1880;
imago July 24th, 1880.
See pp. 100—102.
4, 4 a, larvae after last moult, in stems of Fesiuca
arundinacea, April 4th, 1867 ; imagos July 9th and
See pp. 102.
Ml ANA EXPOLITA.
5, 5 a, larvae after last moult, in Carex glauca, May
31st, 1881 ; moth bred July 13th, 1881.
See pp. 103—106.
6, 6 a, larvae after last moult, in the crown of roots
of Air a csespitosa, May 21st, 1867, and May 24th,
1870 ; imago June 30th, 1870.
See pp. 106, 107.
7,7 a, larvas after last moult ; 7 b, pupa in situ in
lower part of stem of cotton grass (Eriophorwm) .
See pp. 107—109.
I i^iU \iV ! 7b
W. BUCKLER ckL.
"West, Newman StCo, imp,
West, Newman 3c Co. imp.
1, la, lb, larvae after last moult, October 1st, 1862,
and October 15th, 1864, burrowing in moist earth at
the base of Plantago major, and hybernating there full
grown ; imago May 25th and 31st, 1865. b, November
See pp. 110, 111.
2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult ; 2, on dead nettle
and Atrijplex, September 16th, 1861 ; a, on low stunted
bramble, September 13th, 1864; imago June 17th,
1865 ; b, on Sedum telephium and sallow, September
29th, 1871 ; imago June 4th, 1872.
See pp. 111—113.
3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after last moult ; a, on Alsine
media, February 28th, 1861 ; b, found on broom, May
9th, ate sorrel and chick weed ; imago July 2nd, 1865 ;
c, on leaves of dog violet, May 27th ; imago July 7th
4, 4 a, larvae after last moult ; 4, on chickweed,
April J 2th, 1861; a, on sorrel, grass, and chickweed,
April 27th; imago July 12th, 1865.
5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae after last moult ; found in a wheat-
rick on its removal in October, 1859, and September
23rd, 1862, and September 10th, 1863 ; fed on wheat
and plantain ; imagos August 4th, 1860, and July
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London Institution, Finsbury circus, E.C.
London Library, 12, St. James's square, S.W.
Loven, Professor, Stockholm.
Lubbock, The Rt. Hon. Sir J., Bart., M.P., F.L.S., F.R.S., President,
15, Lombard street, E.C.
Lupton, H., Esq., Lyndhurst, North Grange road, Headingley.
Macmurdo, W. G. Esq., The Ferns, Wanstead, E.
Marlborough College Natural History Society, Marlborough.
McGill, H. J., Esq., Aldenham Grammar School, Elstree, Herts.
McGregor, Rev. J., West Green, Culross, Dunfermlime, N.B.
Mcintosh, Prof. W. C, M.D., F.R.S., 2, Abbotsford crescent, St.
McLachlan, R., Esq., F.R.S., West View, Clarendon road, Lewisham,
McMillan, W. S., Esq., F.L.S., Brook road, Maghull, Lancashire.
Maclagan, Sir Douglas, M.D., F.R.S.E., 28, Heriot row, Edinburgh.
Maclaine, M. G., of Lochbuie, Isle of Mull.
Madras Government Museum, Madras.
Major, Charles, Esq., Red Lion Wharf, 69, Upper Thames street, E.C.
Manchester Free Public Library.
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.
Mansel-Pleydell, J. C, Esq., F.L.S., Whatcombe, Blandford.
Marshall, A. E., Esq., Waldersea, Beckenham.
Martin, G. M., Esq., Red Hill Lodge, Compton, Wolverhampton.
Mason, P. B., Esq., F.L.S., Burton-on-Trent.
Mathew, G. F., Esq., R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Lee House, Dovercourt,
Mathews, W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S., 60, Harborne road, Birmingham.
Matthews, C, Esq., F.E.S., Erme Wood, Ivy Bridge, S. Devon.
Meiklejohn, Dr. J. W, S., F.L.S., 105, Holland road, Kensington, W.
Melbourne Public Library.
Mennell, H. T., Esq., F.L.S., 10, St. Dunstan's buildings, Idol lane,
Michael, A. D., Esq., F.L.S., Cadogan Mansions, Sloane square, S.W.
Microscopical Society, Royal, 20, Hanover square, W.
Miller, J. C, Esq., Lynmouth House, Langley road, Elmers End,
Beckenham, Kent, S.E.
Mitchell Library, Glasgow.
Mivart, Prof. St. George J., F.R.S., Hurstcote, Chilworth, Surrey.
Moore, Mrs. E. T., Holmfield, Oakholme road, Sheffield.
Moseley, Sir T., Rolleston Hall, Burton-on-Trent.
Munich Royal Library, Munich.
Neave, B. W., Esq., Lyndhurst, Queen's road, Brownswood park, N.
Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Newman, T. P., Esq., 54, Hatton garden, E.C.
Noble, Capt. Jesmond Dene House, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Noble, Wilson, Esq., 43, Warrior square, St. Leonard's-on-Sea.
Norfolk and Norwich Library, Norwich.
Norman, Rev. A. Merle, M.A , F.L.S., Burnmoor Rectory, Fencehouses,
Nottingham Free Library.
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, per W. B. Winnicott, Esq., Hon.
Sec, 3, Sophie road, Nottingham.
Oldfield, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., 21, Longridge road, Earl's Court,
Oliver, Dr. J., F.R.S.Edin., 13, Gordon square, W.C.
Owens College, Manchester.
Oxford, Magdalen College.
Paisley Philosophical Institute, Paisley.
Paris National Library, per Messrs. Longmans.
Parker, W. K., Esq., F.R.S., Crowland, Trinity road, Upper Tooting,
Pascoe, F. P., Esq., F.L.S., 1, Burlington road, Westbourne Park, W.
Pearce, W. G., 187, Caledonian road, King's Cross, N.
Peckover, Algernon, Esq., F.L.S., Wisbeach.
Peel Park Library, Salford, Lancashire.
Penny, Rev. C. W., Wellington College, Wokingham.
Penzance Public Library.
Perthshire Society of Natural Science, Museum, Tay street, Perth.
Phend, J. S., Esq., LL.D., F.S.A.,5, Carlton terrace, Oakley street, S.W.
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, U.S.A.
Pierce, F. Nelson, Esq., 143, Smithdown lane, Liverpool.
Plymouth Institution, Athenaeum, Plymouth.
Pole-Carew, Miss C. L., Antony, Torpoint, Devonport.
Pode, E. D. Y., Esq., 133, Fentimans road, S.W.
Porritt, G. T., Esq., F.L.S., Greenfield House, Huddersfield.
Poulton, E. B., Esq., Wykeham House, Oxford.
Power, H., Esq., 37a, Great Cumberland place, Hyde Park, W.
Preston Free Public Library.
Pye-Smith, Dr. P. H., F.L.S., 54, Harley street, Cavendish square, W.
Quekett Microscopical Club, University College, W.C,
Radcliffe Library, Oxford.
Radford, D., Esq., Mount Tavy, Tavistock, Devon.
Rashleigh, J., Esq., Menabilly, Par Station, Cornwall.
Reader, Thomas, Esq., Beaufort House, 125, Peckham Rye, S.E.
Reading Microscopical Society, 110, Oxford road, Reading.
Reynell, Miss, 8, Henrietta Street, Dublin.
Ripon, Marquis of, F.R.S., F.L.S., 9, Chelsea Embankment, S.W.
Roberts, Dr. L., Ruabon, North Wales.
Robinson, Rev. F., The Rectory, Castle Eden, Co. Durham.
Robinson, Isaac, Esq., The Wash, Hertford.
Roper, F. C. S., Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Palgrave House, Eastbourne.
Royal Institution, Albemarle street, W.
Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, 20, Hanover square, W.
Royal Society, Burlington House, London, W.
Rowe, J. B., Esq., F.L.S., Plympton Lodge, Plympton, S. Devon.
Rowland-Brown, H., Esq., jun., Oxhey grove, Stanmore.
Ry lands, T. G., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, High Fields, Thelwall,
Salter, Dr. S. J. A., F.R.S., Treasurer, Basingfield, near Basingstoke,
Salvin, Osbert, Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos street, Cavendish square.
Samson and Wallin, Messrs., London.
Sanders, Alfred, Esq., F.L.S., Milton, Sittingbourne, Kent.
Sanford, W. A., Esq., F.G.S., Nynehead Court, near Wellington,
Science and Art Department, South Kensington.
Sclater,P. L.,Esq.,M.A.,Ph.D., F.L.S., F.R.S., 11, Hanover square, W.
Sharpus, F. W., Esq., 30, Compton road, Islington, N.
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society.
Shillitoe, B., Esq., 2, Frederick place, Old Jewry, E.C.
Sinclair, R. S., Esq., 16, Annfield terrace W., Parkhill, Glasgow.
Sion College Library, Victoria Embankment, W.C.
Slack, H. I., Esq., F.G.S., Ashdown Cottage, Forest row, Sussex.
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Cowley, St. John, Oxford.
Slatter, T. J., Esq., F.G.S., Evesham.
Smith, Basil Woodd, Esq., F.S.A., Branch hill, Hampstead, N.W.
Smith, F. W., Esq., F.E.S., Hollywood, Lewisham hill, S.E.
Smith, S. P., Esq., F.E.S., 22, Rylett road, Shepherd's Bush, W.
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton.
Sotheran, Messrs., 136, Strand, W.C.
South London Entomological Society, The Bridge House, London
South London Microscopical Club, care of J. Guardia, Esq., Helston
House, Rozel road, Clapham, S.W.
South, R., Esq., F.E.S., 12, Abbey gardens, St. John's Wood, N.W.
Southport Free Library.
Spicer, Messrs., Brothers, 19, New Bridge street, Blackfriars, E.C.
St. Andrew's University Library, St. Andrew's.
Stainton, H. T., Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., Mountsfield, Lewisham, S.E.
Stearns, A. E., Esq., The Lodge, Upper Haliford.
Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., Ephraim Lodge, The Common, Tunbridge
Stedman, A., Esq., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., L.M., The Croft, Great Book-
Stewart, Prof. C, F.L.S., Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn
Stockholm Royal Academy, Stockholm.
Strasbourgh University Library.
Stubbins, J., Esq., F.G.S., Inglebank, Far Headingly, Leeds.
Sunderland Subscription Library.
Swanston, W., Esq., F.G.S., 50, King street, Belfast.
Thompson, J. C, Esq., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Woodstock, Waverley road,
Thornewell, Rev. C. F., The Soho, Burton-on -Trent.
Toronto, University of, Canada.
Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay.
Townsend, F., Esq., M.A., Honington Hall, Shipston-on-Stour.
Trimble, Mrs. James, Eastney Barracks, Portsmouth.
Triibner & Co., Messrs., London.
Tugwell, W. H., Esq., 6, Lewisham road, Greenwich, S.E.
Turner, Professor W., F.R.S.E., University of Edinburgh.
Tyler, Captain Charles, F.L.S., F.G.S., Elberton, New West End,
University College, London.
Upsala, University of, Sweden.
Vass, M., Leipzig.
Vicars, John, Esq., 8, St. Alban's square, Bootle, Liverpool.
Vicary, William, Esq., The Priory, Colleton crescent, Exeter.
Vinen, Dr. E. Hart, F.L.S., 22, Gordon road, Ealing, W.
Waldegrave, Earl, 13, Montagu place, Montagu square, W.
Walker, Alfred 0., Esq., Chester.
Walker, Rev. Dr. F. A., F.L.S., Duis Mallard, Cricklewood, N.W.
Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, Lord, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Merton
Hall, Thetford, Norfolk.
Warburgh, J. C, Esq., 8, Porchester terrace, W.
Warden, Dr. Charles, Greenhurst, 31, Newall street, Birmingham.
Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington.
Warwickshire Natural History Society, Warwick.
Washington Library of Congress, U.S.A.
Watkinson Library, Harford, Con., U.S.A.
Webb, S., Esq., Maidstone House, Dover.
Weir, J. J., Esq., F.L.S., Chirbury, Copers Cope road, Beckenham,
Wells, J. R., Esq., 4, Pierrepoint road ; Springfield Park, Acton, W.
Welter, Mons. H., 39, Rue Bonaparte, Paris.
Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C.
West Kent Natural History Society, Lewisham, S.E.
Wheeler, F. D., Esq., Paragon House School, Norwich.
Whittle, F. G., Esq., 6, Lothbury, E.C.
Wilson, Owen, Esq., F.E.S., CwmfFrwd, Carmarthen.
Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., F.L.S., Treas. G.S., Secretary,
25, Granville park, Lewisham, London, S.E.
Wollaston, G. H., Esq., 4, College road, Clifton, near Bristol.
Wood, J. H., Esq., M.B., Tarrington, Ledbury.
Woodd, B. T., Esq., Conyngham Hall, Knaresborough, Yorkshire.
Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin.
Yale College, New Haven, U.S.
Yglias, H. R., Esq., 121, Ebury street, Eaton square, S.W.
York Philosophical Society, York.
Zoological Society, 11, Hanover square, W.
LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES
FEOM THEIE COMMENCEMENT, IN 1844, TO
LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES ISSUED
BY THE EAY SOCIETY.
For the First Year, 1844.
I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans-
lated by H. E. Strickland, Jun., MA., F.R.S., E. Lan-
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, BA. 8vo.
II. Memorials of John Ray : consisting of the Life of John
Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the 'Biographie
Universelle ; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine-
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo.
III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca.
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates.
For the Second Year, 1845.
I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated
from the German, by George Bask, F.R.S. Three Plates.
II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca.
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen
Plates. Imp. 4to.
22 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES
ITT. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B.A. ;
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson,
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo.
For the Third Year, 1846.
I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German
by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo.
II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated
from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to.
III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca.
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven
Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Fourth Year, 1847.
I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from
the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo.
II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the
German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A.
III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae.
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp.
For the Fifth Year, 1848.
T. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz.
Vol. I. 8vo.
ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 23
II. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D.,
F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo.
III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca.
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates.
For the Sixth Year, 1849.
I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical
Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates
II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea.
By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo.
For the Seventh Year, 1850.
I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz.
Vol. II. 8vo.
II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca.
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates.
For the Eighth Year. 1851.
I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the
Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo.
II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin,
M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo.
24 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES
For the Ninth Year, 1852.
I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz.
Vol. III. 8vo.
II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca.
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve
Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Tenth Year, 1853.
I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin,
M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo.
II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in-
cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates.
For the Eleventh Year, 1854.
Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz.
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.)
For the Twelfth Year, 1855.
A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates.
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.)
For the Thirteenth Year, 1856.
A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro-
fessor Allman, F.R.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to.
ISSUED BY THE EAT SOCIETY. 25
For the Fourteenth Year, 1857.
A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain.
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Fifteenth Year, 1858.
The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve
Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Sixteenth Year, 1859.
A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp.
For the Seventeenth Year, 1860.
An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B.
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K.
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty-
two Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Eighteenth Year, 1861.
On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five
26 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES
For the Nineteenth Year, 1862.
A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates.
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.)
For the Twentieth Year, 1863.
The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Giinther,
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Twenty-first Year, 1864.
A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank,
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo.
For the Twenty-second Year, 1865.
I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W.
Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo.
II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower-
bank, LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo.
For the Twenty-third Year, 1866.
I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown,
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical,
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo.
ISSUED BY THE EAT SOCIETY. 27
II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht,
Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower,
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to.
III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German.
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867.
I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the
Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates.
II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown,
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo.
For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868.
I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S,
II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown,
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to.
(Completing the work.)
For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869.
A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids.
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates.
For the Twenty-seventh Year, 1870.
A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids.
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates.
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.)
28 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES
For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871.
A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J.
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo.
For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872.
A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh,
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to.
For the Thirtieth Year, 1873.
A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh,
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates.
For the Thirty-first Year, 1874.
A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank,
LL.D., F.B.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo.
For the Thirty-second Year, 1875.
A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton,
F.R.S. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo.
For the Thirty-third Year, 1876.
A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady,
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo.
ISSUED BY THE EAY SOCIETY. 29
For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877.
A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton,
F.R.S, Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo.
For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878.
A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady.
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. II. Forty-nine Plates. 8vo.
For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879.
I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady,
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com-
pleting the work.)
II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. By the late
J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions,
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven-
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.)
For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880.
A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton,
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo.
For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881.
A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera.
By P. Cameron. Vol. I. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo.
30 LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY.
For the Thirty-ninth Year, 1882.
A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton,
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com-
pleting the Work.)
For the Fortieth Year, 1883.
British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I.
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo.
For the Forty-first Year, 1884.
A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hyraenoptera. By
P. Cameron. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo.
For the Forty-second Year, 1885.
The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. I. The
Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo.
For the Forty-third Year, 1886.
The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late
W. Buckler, edited bv H. T. Stainton. Vol. II. The
Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen
LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 31
For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887.
British Oribatidai. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II.
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.)
For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888.
The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. III. The
concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen Plates.
For the Forty-sixth Year, 1889.
A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By
P. Cameron. Vol. III. Seventeen Plates. 8vo.
For the Forty-seventh Year, 1890.
The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. IV. The
first portion of the Noctuse. Sixteen Plates. 8vo.
PRINTED BY ADLABD AND SON, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE.